1 / 49

Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality

Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality . A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States By: Joel Spring Presented by: Heather Nast , Lauren Finelli and Andrew Reder. In Education Protestants and Catholics in 1840’s Punishment of enslaved Africans

Télécharger la présentation

Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States By: Joel Spring Presented by: Heather Nast, Lauren Finelli and Andrew Reder

  2. In Education Protestants and Catholics in 1840’s Punishment of enslaved Africans Racial clashes School integration riots Current debates Racial Violence • Throughout history... • US Civil War • Trail of Death • 19th century Chinese • Enslaved Africans • Race riots in 19th and 20th centuries • Zoot Suit riots • Civil Rights Movement

  3. Globalization • Globalization- begins when Columbus arrives in the Americas in 1492 and links the world trade routes • Civilized v. uncivilized- Christian v. Pagan

  4. Religious Superiority • Catholics • Religious heretics • Catholics schools developed the private school sect • Protestant • The superior belief • Referred to as “public” schools • Mostly anti-Catholic (obvious in government life) *** Lead to the Catholic/Protestant school riots over religious doctrines

  5. Race, Racism and Citizenship • Race- primarily a social construction • Racism- prejudice plus power

  6. Educational Methods for Global Cultural Encounters • Cultural Genocide • Deculturalization • Assimilation • Cultural Pluralism • Denial of Education • Hybridity

  7. Educational and Cultural Differences • Colonists • Child-rearing- discipline, authority and memorization (break the will of the child) • School- formal setting • Work- activity provided protection against sin • Political power- only men • Native Americans • Child-rearing- quite dismissive • School- informal, educated by stories told by the elders • Work- only for what they needed • Political power- held by some women

  8. Early Native American Educational Programs • Failed establishment of Henrico College • Praying towns • Dartmouth College • Moor’s Charity School

  9. 5 Civilized Tribes • Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek and Seminole tribes • Government wanted their land • Felt like the nuclear family and the establishment of a formal government was leaked to the need for a nuclear family • Hoped for a cash economy to develop

  10. Native Americans: Deculturalization, Schooling, and Globalization • Native Americans as Indigenous people • The Naturalization Act of 1790 excluded them from citizenship of the U.S.

  11. Schooling • Thomas McKenney thought schooling would socially control Native Americans and improve their society • He introduced schools to Indian tribes as “experiments” • White Missionary teachers- American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) • 1819 Civilization Fund Act

  12. Native American language and culture • Sequoyah created a written language to preserve their history, religions, and culture • Elias Boudinot created Cherokee Phoenix in 1828

  13. Indian Removal • Andrew Jackson worried that education was giving Indians the power to resist the U.S. government • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Trail of Tears

  14. Once settled they began setting up schools and governments • The Spencer, Armstrong, & New Hope Academies • Cherokees were almost 100% literate!

  15. Reservations and Boarding Schools • Charles E. Mix said that the U.S. had made great errors when dealing with the tribes • 1867 Indian Peace Commission • Boarding schools take children to strip away their native culture • Carlisle Indian School &Hampton- Richard Pratt

  16. Poor conditions- how are they to learn? • Meriam Report in 1928

  17. African Americans: Deculturalization, Transformation, and Segregation • “Diaspora” • British, Spanish, and Portuguese imperialists moved enslaved Africans to North American and other locations • North- societies with the slaves • South- slave societies (plantation life) • Two ways denial of education laws can be used

  18. “Creole” • Increase demand of slaves • Devastating tolls on newly arrived slaves • Free slaves still had restrictions • Petitions to gradually abolish slavery in the North

  19. Educational Segregation • Freedom vs. Equality • Segregated schools • Reading and writing in English • Unequal funding • Discrimination

  20. Boston Fights for Equal Education • Massachusetts Education Act of 1789 • Funding • Benjamin Robert’s daughter- First separate-but-equal ruling in judicial history • 1855 Massachusetts governor signed a law that said no child can be denied admission based on race/religion

  21. Slaves were not allowed to read • Although many of them learned • Helped the slaves learn about what was happening in the Civil War • “Darky act” or “trickers”

  22. African Americans had to obey the government, but was not allowed to have a say in it • The Fourteenth Amendment Section 1 • Homer Plessy

  23. First Crusade • First: literacy • Former slaves established schools • Trying to improve political and economic standings • Booker T. Washington • “cast down its buckets and use black workers” • W.E.B. Du Bois • NAACP • General Samuel Armstrong • Hampton and segregated industrial education

  24. Second Crusade • 1910- 1930s, Expansion of segregated schools paid by individual supporters and government • The Anna T. Jeanes Fund & The Julius Rosenwald Fund

  25. Asians: Shifting Views • Generally speaking, White efforts at deculturization focused on the denial of education and separation of Asian populations from White populations • The nature of Asian immigration caused treatment to shift much faster than any other group

  26. Coming to America • Chinese: Moving around since 15th century • First major wave was Gold Rush • 1850s in California • Paid their own way, not enough money to get back • Ended up working on railroads or in agriculture • Japanese: Late start • 1639 law forbade foreign travel • Immigration started in 1868 to Hawaii and California

  27. Other Asian Populations • Small amounts (<10,000) from Korea and India • In 1907 a large Filipino migration began • Other Asians not significant until Immigration Act of 1965

  28. White Views • Until 1960s, major views were: • “Coolie” • low cost, servile labor • Born from railroad workers/farmhands • “Deviant” • Immoral, sexually permissive • Born from opium dens and prostitution • Combined as “Yellow Peril”

  29. Push and Pull • Asian immigration started relatively late, when big pushes for more equal rights were starting • “Coolie” legislation often clashed with “Deviant” legislation • Many of most repressive laws were reversed soon after being enacted

  30. Example: San Fransisco • 1872: All White students to be educated • 1884: Imperial Chinese Consulate complains • SF School board specifically bars “Mongolians” • 1885: Superior Court overrules SF • 1885: Segregated schools implemented • 1906: Forced integration to avoid international incident

  31. A New Image • WWII • Japanese Internment • Asians differentiated • 1950s, the Model Minority

  32. Latinos: Location, Location • Biggest Latino influxes came from conquest • 1848: End of Mexican-American War • US gained California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas • 1898: End of Spanish-American War • US gained Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and naval base in Cuba

  33. Similar View, Different Treatment • Latinos: mix of Indian (not white) and Spanish (white on a technicality) • Generally regarded as Indians or worse • Mexicans valued as cheap labor • Education was denied/neglected/segregated • Puerto Ricans feared as too independent • Education was forced in order to “Americanize”

  34. Puerto Rico: A dream snatched away • Strong independence movement since 1860s • Made “autonomous state” in 1897 • Constitutional Republic with Spanish Governor • Conquered in 1898

  35. Puerto Rico: Winning Hearts and Minds • “Put an American schoolhouse in every valley and upon every hilltop” • Education used as a weapon to inspire loyalty • English-only past first grade • American History over Puerto Rican History • Celebration of American holidays • Biggest tension was over English Language • Starting in 1912, calls for Bilingual education

  36. Mexicans: Kept poor and dumb • Similar Policies to Puerto Rico to inspire patriotism • Almost never enforced • “Educating the Mexican is educating them away from the job, away from the dirt” • Those that did go to school were segregated

  37. Globalization: The Great Civil Rights Movement and Wars of Liberation • Internationally • Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples • Domestically • Discrimination everywhere • Deculturalization and school segregation was part of a general global movement

  38. School Desegregation • NAACP- desegregation and opportunity to participate in economic system • 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education Topeka • Public demonstrations to take action • Lack of supervision to make sure segregation ended • CORE, SNCC, SCLC

  39. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. • King was born in 1929 into a family of Baptist Ministers • Introduction of nonviolent confrontation • 1957 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

  40. Martin Luther King, Jr. Continued… • Rosa Parks • 1957 “Give us the Ballot…” speech to Washington, DC • Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Titles 4 & 6

  41. Contrast: Asian Experience • During this time, “Model Minority” view became popular • Contrasted to Black experience • Obscured reality of Asian Experience

  42. In 1961, 450 Indians attended the American Indian Chicago Conference • End to termination policies • John F. Kennedy • More Indian participation in decisions involving federal policies • Struggle for self-determination • Pan-Indian Movement

  43. Indian Education: A National Tragedy • Bilingual Education Act of 1968 • Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 • Tribally Controlled Schools Act • Native American Languages Act of 1990

  44. Bilingual Education • 1951: Puerto Rico becomes commonwealth • Spanish restored • 1968 Boycotts in LA • Bilingual Education Act of 1968 • Official language disputes

  45. Multicultural Education, Immigration and the Cultural Wars • 1965 Immigration Act that abolished the 1924 Immigration Act (and the quota system) • Multicultural education rose • Ethnocentric schools (go back to segregation)

  46. Cultural Wars cont. and NCLB • Mandatory standardized tests only measure one culture • Bilingual education be used as a vehicle for learning English

  47. 21ST Century: Post- Racial Society • Post-racial- a society where race is no longer important in determining social status and income • However, government agencies state that the concept of race has no scientific or anthropological meaning but persist in using racial categories in their reports • Socially constructed in contrast to legal or administrative definitions of race

  48. In Comparison • Race and income • 1- all white • 2- white (Hispanic or Latino) • Least- Black or African American • Drop out rates (1972-2006) • 1- Hispanic • 2- Black • 3- Whites

  49. Is the US a Post-Racial Society • YES • Racial categories are no longer recognized, by government agencies, as having scientific or anthropological meaning • Because race is a confusing term taking on many different meanings among post-1965 immigrants • Since post-1965 immigrants are not facing any overt attempts as Deculturalization and Americanization • NO • Many native-born whites and blacks still think in the racial categories created by law and judicial decisions from the 18th century to the Civil Rights Movements • Since government agencies require the use of racial categories • The legacy of race-based laws and Deculturalization still contribute to educational and economic inequality • Since many immigrants from Mexico and Central America as assimilation into native-born Hispanic communities suffering from the legacy of the past

More Related