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Swine Production

Swine Production

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Swine Production

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  1. Swine Production Fall, 2009 ANSC 4401 John J. McGlone, PhD Professor

  2. In what ways are pigs in the news?

  3. Swine Influenza July, 2009

  4. How is this H1N1 different? From Time Magazine, July 09

  5. Why the concern now? From Time Magazine, July 09

  6. Is this our image? Getting Real About the High Price of Cheap Food By Bryan Walsh Friday, Aug. 21, 2009 “Somewhere in Iowa, a pig is being raised in a confined pen, packed in so tightly with other swine that their curly tails have been chopped off so they won't bite one another. To prevent him from getting sick in such close quarters, he is dosed with antibiotics. The waste produced by the pig and his thousands of pen mates on the factory farm where they live goes into manure lagoons that blanket neighboring communities with air pollution and a stomach-churning stench….” http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1917458,00.html

  7. How did we get here?

  8. How did get from there to here?

  9. History of the PigDomestication • 40 million years ago: Giant Pig • Branches into ruminants & Suidae • 9000+ years ago • Indonesia (or Europe)

  10. History of the pig Place in the animal kingdom: Phylum: Mammalia Order: Artiodactyla Sub-order: Suina (hippos & peccaries) Family: Suidae (pigs; babyrousa, warthog, etc.) Genus: Sus (bearded pig, pigmy hog, warty hog, etc.) Species: scrofa

  11. European Wild Boar

  12. German “Swine Forest”or “Wild Housing” Hutewald

  13. European Wild Boar

  14. History of the Pig • 9000+ years ago; Humans in caves/huts with pigs nearby • by 3,000-4,000 BC Persian*, Egyptian, Chinese & desert civilizations all ate pork & pigs were an important part of their culture • Pig herds spread West and North in Eurasia * Muhammad lived 570-632 AD

  15. History of the Pig • Jewish, Islamic and some Hindu sects stopped eating pork; reasons included • nomadic cultures not as suited to pigs as to cattle/sheep/camels • pigs ate waste products and were considered unhealthy • pork could contain parasites that made people sick

  16. What is the image of pigs in today’s world? What was the industry image in Biblical times?

  17. Pigs Were Critical in History • Ancient Persia • Ancient Egypt • Ancient Greece • Roman Empire • Celtic nations • Colonizing nations (Spain, UK, Dutch, etc.) • Today

  18. Pigs in Historical Art • Greek pig sculptures & drawing on a plate • circa 500 BC; Louvre, Paris

  19. History of the Pig • The Roman Empire improved pig breeding and spread pigs • Two types were developed: • Large, floppy ears, much lard • Smaller, erect ears, for meat Iberian pigs from modern-day Spain

  20. History of the Pig By the 1500s: • In the North, Celtic people bred large-bodied, well-muscled pigs • In Southern Europe, Iberians developed smaller-framed, lard-type pigs • All pigs of the day were dark colored

  21. History of the Pig Sea-going explorers used live pigs (domestic and wild): • to eat along the way • to supply seedstock for new colonies • to hunt on a later visit Explorers used pork in the form of: • salt pork • cured pork

  22. USA Phases of Growth in Pig #s • Phase 1 -- The early settlers(colonial days) • Phase 2 -- 1776 to 1865(pigs move west) • Phase 3 -- 1865 to 1995(pigs with grain) • Phase 4 -- Now and futurea. Away from peopleb. Away from waterwaysc. Biosecurity concerns

  23. Pig Numbers

  24. World Meat Situation Pork is the #1 meat eaten in the world • Pork 106 million metric tons • Beef 65 million metric tons • Poultry 95 million metric tons

  25. Consumers are spending more on meat over time

  26. Meat Production in 1969, 2009 and Projected for 2030 * % change in 2009 compared with 1969 ** FAO estimate from 2003 2003 & 2009 FAO reports ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y4252E/y4252e.pdf http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/ai482e/ai482e08.htm

  27. Pig meat production metric tonnes, 2007

  28. Value of Agricultural Products in the USA in 1997

  29. Largest Meat Exportersmillions of tonnes, 2008

  30. Who is exporting pork? FAO 2009: http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/ai482e/ai482e08.htm

  31. USA Import-Export of Pork USA exports are rising!

  32. USA Grain Producing Areas

  33. USA Pig Numbers 2009(selected states) March 1, 2009 USDA

  34. USA Pigs per litter March-May, 2009

  35. The USA Breeding Herd is shrinking in numbers …But herd productivity is increasing and more pork is being produced with fewer sows

  36. Corn prices were very high last year; they are lower now and we expect a large corn crop … But price for pigs is still below break even by $20/pig or more Break even

  37. Hog farms have lost money, on average, for the last 40 months and will do so for at least another 8 months (until summer of 2010)

  38. Sows on large farms • In September, 2006, Smithfield bought PSF • Triumph Foods includes 5 or more producers http://www.thepigsite.com/swinenews/18994/pork-commentary-pork-powerhouse

  39. Regional Pig Numbers = 300,000 sows; 6 million pigs/year (growth was from 1990-2000)

  40. Production Technologies • Cattle & Sheep are more often grazed • Pigs & Poultry are more intensified

  41. Alternative Technologies

  42. Modern Farms Dramatic changes in global meat production could increase risk of diseases Livestock producers should invest more in biosecurity and disease monitoring 17 September 2007, Rome - Global animal food production is undergoing a major transformation that could lead to a higher risk of disease transmission from animals to humans, FAO warned today. http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2007/1000660/index.html

  43. Flow in modern pork production units

  44. Life Cycle Pork Production

  45. Production schedules • Based on a 20 or 21 week cycle • 20 groups of sows would be on a weekly schedule • Each week one group farrows another is weaned and another is bred • Shorter lactation length results in more litters per sow per year (up to a point)

  46. What drives production? • Lower the cost • Increase pigs per sow per year • Increase farrowing or conception rate • Increase litter size • Increase weight gain • Improve feed efficiency • Improve animal health • Morbidity • Mortality

  47. The PSF-TX Experience

  48. The MFF-Laverne Experience

  49. Benefits of Pigs to the Region • Kids and grand kids can stay here • Community prospers • Land values increase • Local grain and land have added value • Local multiplication of economic effect • Rural lifestyle can be protected

  50. Change in pig industry • Virtually no small, family commercial farms • Show pigs are a different industry in the USA and this is especially strong in Texas • Pork is a commodity or in a niche • Little opportunity to start a commercial pig farm and be successful in the USA • Great opportunities to work for corporations • International opportunities abound in Latin America, Eastern Europe and Asia