U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration
Jim Cooney • Accident Prevention Specialist • Safety Program Manager
Nancy Trudell • Manager Helena Flight Standards District Office • The Big Kahuna
Steve Robinson • Billings Flight Service • Flight Standards
FAA • Federal • Acronym • Association
FAA • Friendly • Aviation • Agency
Orville Moore • Moore Quality Flying Service • Safety Program Counselor
Form1040EZ Income Tax Return 1995Name &Address L A Print your name above (first, initial, last) B E Home address (no and street) apt no L City, town or post office, state and ZIP code • Report Your Income 1. How much did you make last year? 1. • Figureyour Tax 2. How much do you have left? 2. • 3. Send it to us! 3. • Sign your signature dateyourreturn X
2 Essentials of Flight • Lift • Money
Federal Aviation RegulationsA REVIEW OF FAR PART 61 & 91
Airspace Reclassification • Positive Control Airspace Class A • Terminal Control Area Class B • Airport Radar Service Area Class C • Airport Traffic Area-Control Zone Class D • Controlled Airspace Class E • Uncontrolled Airspace Class G
FAR 91.155Basic VFR Weather Minimums Altitude Visibility Cloud Clearance Class A Not Applicable Not Applicable Class B 3 statute miles Clear of Clouds Class C & D 3 statute miles 500 feet below 1000 feet above 2000 feet horizontal Class E below 10k Same Same 10k & above 5 statute miles 1000 feet below 1000 feet above 2000 feet horizontal
FAR 91.155 cont. Altitude Visibility Cloud Clearance Class G Day 1200 ft. or less 1 statute mile Clear of clouds Night 1200 ft or less 3 statute miles 500 ft. below 1000 ft. above 2000 ft. horizontal Day 1200 ft. to 10,000 1 statute mile 500 ft. below 1000 ft above 2000 ft. horizontal Night 1200 to 10,000 3 statute miles 500 ft. below 1000 ft.above 2000 ft. horizontal More than 1200 and 5 statute miles 1000 ft. below and above 10,000 1000 ft. above 1 mile horizontal
FAR 61.3Required Certificates • (a) Pilot certificate - in personal possession • (c) Appropriate and current medical certificate - in personal possession • (e) Instrument rating - when conditions are less than minimums for VFR flight • (h) Inspection of certificate - upon request
FAR 61.14Drug or Alcohol Test (b) Refusal, Grounds forSuspension or Revocation
61.31 High Performance Aircraft • Cannot act as PIC High Performance AC • 200 Horsepower or retractable gear, flaps, & controllable propeller • flight instruction from authorized CFI • logbook endorsement • PIC time before November 1, 1973 • PIC check by FAA , 121, 125, 135 PIC check, or a military PIC check
61.31 High Altitude Aircraft • Private or commercial pilot cannot act as PIC of pressurized AC with service ceiling or max operating altitudeabove 25,000’unless that person has: • flight instruction from authorized CFI • logbook endorsement • PIC time before April 15, 1991 • PIC check by FAA, 121, 125, 135 PIC check, or a military PIC check
61.31 Tailwheel Aircraft • Cannot act as PIC of tailwheel AC unless that pilot has: • flight instruction from authorized CFI includingnormal, crosswind, and wheel landings • logbook endorsement • Grandfather clause - PIC time before April 15, 1991
FAR 61.51Logging of Pilot time (c) • 1. Solo - sole occupant • 2. Pilot in command - sole manipulator • 3. Second in command - aircraft requires more than one pilot. • 4. Instrument time - simulated or actual - CFI - instructing in actual conditions
61.56 Flight Review • No person may act as PIC without a Flight Review and Logbook endorsement. • 1 Hr Flight Instruction • 1 Hour Ground Instruction • Complete “approved” proficiency check • Complete the “Wings” Program • Flight Instructors who have completed renewal need not complete ground instruction
61.57 Recent Flight Experience • Daytime - cannot act as PIC carrying passengers unless • 3 Takeoffs & landings in same category & class during last 90 days • Full Stop in tailwheel aircraft • Night • 3 Takeoffs & landings in same category & class during last 90 days • 1 Hr after sunset to 1 Hr before sunrise
61.57 Recent IFR Experience • Cannot act as PIC under IFR nor in WX below VFR unless within last 6 calendar months • 6 Hours of actual or simulated • 3 Hrs in flight in same category of aircraft • 6 Instrument approaches in same category • Instrument Competency Check • FAA , Military, FAA check pilot, certified CFII
FAR 61.189Flight Instructor Records (a) Each Flight Instructor ShallSign the Logbook Of each person he has givenFlight or Ground Instruction
FAR 61.193Flight Instructor Authorizations A Flight Instructor is Authorized (a) To give Flight and Ground Inst. (b) To Endorse the Certificate for Solo or Solo Cross-country (c) To Endorse the Logbook for single or repeated Solo Flights (d) To Endorse the Logbook for prep. & preflight planning for XC
FAR 91.3 Responsibility & Authority of Pilot in Command • Final Authority as to the operation of that aircraft. • May deviate from any rule to the extent required to meet an emergency. • Shall uponrequest send a written report of that deviation to the Administrator.
91.103 Preflight Action • Each Pilot in Command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. • weather, fuel requirements, alternatives, traffic delays, takeoff & landing distances. • any necessary information relating to aircraft performance.
FAR 91.111 Operating Near Other Aircraft • No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. • No formation flight - except by pre- arrangement of PICs. • No formation flight with passengers for hire.
FAR 91.117 Aircraft Speed • Below 10,000’ MSL:250 knots or less - 288 mph or less • Within 4 NM of an airport in class C or class D airspace at or below 2500 AGL :200 knots or less - 230 mph or less • Below airspace underlying class B airspace200 knots or less - 230 mph or less
FAR 91.119 Minimum Safe Altitudes • Anywhere - An altitude which will allow a safe emergency landing without hazard to people or property on the surface. • Congested Area - 1000’above the highest obstacle within 2000’or the aircraft. • Other than congested areas - 500’ • Over water & sparsely populated areas:no closer than 500’to any person, vessel, vehicle or structure.
FAR 91.411 Altimeter System Checks • No person may operate an aircraft in controlled airspace under IFR unless • Within the previous 24 calendar months • the system has been checked and found to comply to part 43 • Following installation of an encoder or any system maintenance • the system has been checked and found to comply to part 43
FAR 91.411 Transponder Tests & Inspections • No person may use an ATC transponder unless: • within the previous 24 calendar months • the system has been checked and found to comply to part 43 • following installation or maintenance on a transponder • the system has been checked and found to comply to part 43
Secret to Taking a Check Ride • Allow a check pilot to establish his (or her superiority.. • When he thinks you think that he’s the greatest thing since Lindberg, the ride will go better!!!
Emergency Landings • Airspeed - level or slightly low nose attitude - Fly the Airplane. • Airfield - landing site within 45 degrees. • Fuel - Carb Heat - Ignition. • Fly the Airplane - maintain control. • Pilot should know emergency procedures specific to the airplane he/she is flying. • Final Phase - Fly the Airplane - No steep turns close to the ground - flaps.
It’s a physiological fact that your can only do one thing at a time. • If you spend too much time doing one thing in an airplane, • know that something else is probably going to hell.
NTSBU.S. Transportation Fatalities • Highway 21,366 21,494 • Aviation 994 800 • Marine 972861 1992 1993
Learn from the Mistakes of Others.... • You will not live long enough to make them all yourself!
Good Judgment comes from experience... • Experience is often the result of bad judgment!
Military Training Routes • 3 Mid Air Collisions since 1986 • 51 known near mid air incidents • 46 NASA Reports Filed • Need to determine activity in MTR for flight planning purposes. • AC-210-5B “Military Flying Activities” • AC 90-48C “
Military Training Routes • Airman’s Information Manual Chapter 3, Section 5, Para 3-41 • Sectional Aeronautical Charts • IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts
Stall - Spin Accidents • 3rd Leading cause of fatalities. • Need to stress recurrent training. • High level vs low level stalls. • Need to teach approach to stall awareness. • Need to develop immediate reactions to approach to low level stall situations.
Don’t put yourself in a situation • where you are committed • to just one course of action!
VMC into IMC • 2rd Leading cause of fatalities • Need to stress the importance of not pressing the weather • Legal minimums not necessarily safe minimums • 178 Seconds • The 180 degree turn can be a life saving maneuver
Vertigo • The inability of a person to perceive his/her position relative to the earth. • In other words.... he/she cannot tell which way is UP!!!
If the weather briefing makes you nervous... • What makes you think theflight will calm your nerves?
It’s better to be on the ground, wishing you were in the air, than it is • to be in the air, wishing you were on the ground!
Unwarranted Low Level Flying • TheLeadingCause of Fatalities in Montana • Low level sight-seeing • Looking for Elk or Game • Just Plain Buzzing • Life Threatening Situation • 43 Fatalities over 10 year period
Minimum Safe Altitude • A. One where you don’t hit anything. • B. One where you don’t have to worry about hitting anything. • C. One where neither you, nor your passengers nor the FAA have to worry about you hitting anything!