We Need Fat • Dietary fat is one of three macronutrients (along with protein and carbohydrates) that provide energy for your body • Fat is essential to your health because it supports a number of your body's functions • Some vitamins, for instance, must have fat to dissolve and nourish your body (fat soluble)
We Need Fat • Fat provides flavor and texture to help prevent food from being bland and dry • Provides back-up energy if blood sugar supplies run out (after 4-6 hours without food) • Provides insulation under the skin from the cold and the heat
Fat Guidelines – Trans Fat • You should try to avoid trans fat completely • The American Heart Association recommends limiting trans fat to no more than 1 percent of your total daily calories • For most people, this is less than 2 grams a day at the most!!!
Fat Guidelines – Bottom Line • Although amount of fat is important, more about “types” of fat than amount • Choose healthy fats • Limit saturated fat • Avoid trans fat
Types of Fat - Saturation • A saturated fatty acid has no double bonds • A monounsaturated fatty acid has one double bond • A polyunsaturated fatty acid has two or more double bonds
Saturated Fats • Solid at room temperature • Found in • Beef and pork fat • Coconut oil • Palm kernel oil • Whole milk • Butter • Cheese • Cocoa butter
Saturated Fat • Saturated fat may increase your risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes • Replace saturated fats with healthier monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats, found in olive oil, canola oil, vegetable oils, lean poultry, and unsalted nuts and seeds
Monounsaturated Fats • Liquid at room temperature • Have 1 (mono) double bond • Found in: • Olive oil • Canola oil • Peanut oil • Cashews
Polyunsaturated Fats • Liquid at room temperature • Have more than 1 (poly) double bond • Found in: • Canola oil • Corn oil • Soybean oil • Safflower oil • Sunflower oil • Cottonseed oil
Shape of Fats • Unsaturated fats have kinky, fluid and flexible chains – easier to break down • Saturated fats have straight and rigid chains – harder to break down – they buildup in your arteries • Shape affects health
Trans Fats • Cis fatty acids have hydrogens located on the same side of the double bond • Trans fatty acids have hydrogens located on opposite sides of the double bond
Hydrogenation • When hydrogen is added to a mono- or polyunsaturated fat, a liquid oil becomes solid at room temperature. =
Hydrogenation • Benefits of hydrogenation • Makes fats more stable, with longer shelf-life • Alters texture of foods (flaky pie crusts) • A cheap alternative to using butter or perishable oils for food manufacturers
Hydrogenation • Negatives of hydrogenation/trans fats: • Makes unsaturated fat (good) act like saturated fat in the body (bad) • Like saturated fat, trans fat causes LDL (bad) cholesterol to go up • Trans fats ALSO lower HDL (good) cholesterol • “Trans” fats may be more detrimental to heart health than naturally-occurring saturated fats
Label Tricks! • There are 3 servings in 1 bag! • Serving size: 3 tbsp (makes 4 cups popped) • When providing nutrition info, they give you info for 3 tbsp, but only 1 cup popped (instead of 4) • 180 calories/serving (540 in a bag) • 13g fat/serving (39g in a bag) • 2.5g sat. fat/serving (7.5g in a bag) • 5 Grams Trans Fat Per Serving! (15g in a bag)
Does This Have Trans Fat? Yes it does! We’ll see how in a minute!
Trans Fat Labeling • January, 2006: Trans Fat Labeling Required by Law • Here’s the tricky part: • FDA food labeling rules make it possible for consumers to exceed their maximum recommended daily intake of trans fats even if they eat only foods labeled "zero trans fats" per serving. How?
Trans Fat Labeling • According to the FDA, a product claiming to have “zero trans fat” can actually contain up to a half gram of trans fat per serving! • So they make the serving size smaller!!! • Read the ingredients! “Hydrogenated = Trans Fat”
Where Are Trans Fats Found? • Margarines • Shortening • Pie Crusts and Pie Crust Mixes • Tortillas and tortilla chips • Potato chips • Flavored popcorn • Commercial cookies, cakes
Where Are Trans Fats Found? • Doughnuts • Crackers • Granola • Pastries • Biscuit, muffin and cake mixes • Fried foods (French fries, fried chicken)
Essential Fatty Acids • These are fatty acids the body can’t make; they must be consumed in the diet to meet the body’s needs. • Help regulate cell function • Regulate blood clotting, inflammation, vasodilation/constriction
Omega 3 and Omega 6 Fatty Acids • Omega 3 means the first double bond is 3 carbons back from the methyl end of the chain • Omega 6 means the first double bond is 6 carbons back
Omega 3 (Linolenic Acid) • A member of the Omega 3 fatty acid family • Used to make EPA and DHA • These reduce the risk of heart disease, hypertension, arthritis, cancer • Found in flaxseed oil, canola oil, fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel), leafy greens, soy, beans, walnuts
Omega 6 (Linoleic Acid) • A member of the Omega 6 fatty acid family • Found in vegetable oils, some nuts
Essential F.A. Deficiency • It is possible to have a deficiency of linoleic and linolenic acids • Symptoms include: • Flaky, itchy skin • Growth retardation • Poor wound healing • Depression?
Let’s Take A Look • http://eatthis.menshealth.com/content/fattiest-restaurant-foods-america • http://eatthis.menshealth.com/content/trans-fattiest-foods-america-2009