The Tie That Binds Barb Williams Elaine Hoffert
Goals • To identify for all courses the connections among • Standards • Texts • Strategies • Assessments (Writing)
Clear Target Become cognitive of best practices needed for TN Standards/CCSS R. 9-10.1, 11-12.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. W. 9-10.4, 11-12.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Overarching QuestionWhat are the best practices needed in order to equip students with the ability to read closely to determine what the text says explicitly? What do I want my students to know and be able to do by the end of this lesson?
Content understanding requires comprehension of text: written, auditory, visual + • Comprehension is achieved through strategic reading = All teachers are teachers of reading!
Practice: The Shillybog • Last night after closty, my flimers and I went downtown to the shillybog. It was late and my other flimers were already there. Some of them were trogging and others were lutzing to the blane. I’m not a very good lutzer, but I love to listen to the blane. My friends nelled me a few trogs and pretty soon I was lutzing, too! I don’t really sartle it clearly. I woke up this morning in my warban with a terrible kerfufle. My roommate gave me two sloves to vipax, so I should feel twiggle soon. I hope so because I don’t want to be late for Lynn’s molentale!
Practice: The Shillybog • 1. Where did the writer go last night? • 2. Who went with the writer and what did they do? • 3. How did the writer feel this morning? Why? • 4. How did the writer solve the problem? • ON HANDOUT
Connections Standards Texts Strategies Assessments
Standards Content Examples Literacy CCR 7: Social Studies 9-10: Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text Science /Technical Subjects 9-10;Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. • WG.7 Analyze and explain how different cultures use maps and other visual images to reflect their own interests and ambitions.
Webb’s Depth of Knowledge • Level 1 Recall • Level 2 Skill/Concept • Level 3 Strategic Reasoning • Level 4 Extended Reasoning • Webb, Norman L. and others. “Web Alignment Tool” 24 July 2005. Wisconsin Center of Educational Research. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Webb’s Depth of Knowledge vs Blooms Taxonomy • Teachers were encouraged to pay attention to Bloom’s verbs to identify the level of cognitive complexity/ rigor. • 4th Grade: Identify examples of effect. • 6th Grade: Analyze examples of cause and effect.
Webb’s Depth of Knowledge vs Blooms Taxonomy Many new standards require teachers to look beyond the verb to determine the level of cognitive complexity. • 1st Grade: Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story using key details. • 2nd Grade: Describe howcharacters in a story respond to major events and challenges. • 3rd Grade: Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings), and explainhowtheir actions contribute to the sequence of events.
Standards: What we know is normal • There are too many standards to cover in one course on state or national lists • Content teachers are not typically trained in teaching reading • Use data to determine student preparedness • Plan and use formative assessments • Respond to data from formative assessments • Keep track of student progress (students take ownership of this)
Standards: What we can/can NOT control • Work with 2 shoulder partners • Discuss 3 things you can control and 3 things you can not control regarding the standards you teach in your classroom. • 5 minutes Then share with another trio • ON HANDOUT
The CCSS Requires Three Shifts in ELA/Literacy (FROM CCSS) • Building knowledge through content-richnonfiction • Reading, writing and speaking grounded in evidence from text, both literary and informational • Regular practice with complex text and its academic language
Texts • CCSS shift to complex texts • Content texts are already complex • Teachers supplement textbooks with other text • Text selection is at discretion of teacher, school, district
Features of Complex Text • Subtle and/or frequent transitions • Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes • Density of information • Unfamiliar settings, topics or events • Lack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentences • Complex sentences • Uncommon vocabulary • Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student • Longer paragraphs • Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures
Complex Text: Finding Readability • http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/help/test-your-document-s-readability-HP010148506.aspx
Texts • Identify 2 texts that pose difficulty for students in your course. E.g., • A textbook chapter on “Technology and the Constitution” • An internet article on “Teen Economy: How Teens Can Manage Their Limited Finances” • List one reason for the difficulty each text poses. E.g, • Vocabulary is too complex • Students lack background knowledge on topic
Strategies • Reading Strategies are the key to unlocking text and opening the door to comprehension. • Teachers use strategies without realizing that they are literacy or reading fix-ups • Strategic use of these empowers students to comprehend regardless of their existing abilities or the complexity of the texts
Strategies Reading Strategies: Three major divisions • Before Reading • During Reading • After Reading
Strategies • Start small • Be consistent • Use the language of the strategy • Select a resource and stick with it
Strategies: Before Reading Passage Prediction • Sort key vocabulary words into categories • Predict the content based on the words & categories Sets purpose, creates anticipation, engages students in constructing meaning before & during reading
Strategies: During Reading Think Aloud • Verbally describes steps used to think & question as we encounter text • Shows how to make sense of text and develop concrete questions about confusion related to concepts in text Develops an inner voice for how to think through unfamiliar text, provides models of how to develop comprehension, shows teacher how students are thinking through content.
Strategies: During Reading Marginalia • Insert written notes, charts, other marks in margin of printed text • Provides record of what the reader is thinking Develops focus during reading & helps remember key ideas, identifies misunderstanding so teachers can effectively reteach
Strategies: After Reading Somebody Wanted But So (SWBS) • Identifies elements of process text • Provides framework for summaries • Can be developed during entire reading process Creates a record of main information & cause/effect elements that work toward a result, focuses on key information, identifies misunderstanding so teachers can effectively reteach
Strategies: After Reading Somebody Wanted But So (SWBS)
Strategies: After Reading Vocabulary Rubric • Identifies learning by using language of lesson • Focuses on meaning of words introduced throughout the lesson • Analyzes how well students understand vocabulary Overload on vocabulary creates gaps in understanding; rubric gives student & teacher chance to see which words need re-teaching for comprehensions
Strategies: After Reading Vocabulary Rubric: List content vocabulary under the column that shows self-assessment of knowledge.
Assessments Formative Summative Chapter Unit District Common State Assessments National Assessments • Daily • Non-Graded • Homework • Quizzes • Ungraded Benchmarks
Assessments • Why • What • When
Assessments • Why • To know where students are in their learning path • What • Objectives; Goals; Standards • When • Daily (Formative) • When Students are ready
Assessments Content teacher responsibility is to assess content in ways that reflect WHAT students really know about the content. Must be standards – based Writing is the best way to know what students really know. Content teachers feel anxiety when first presented with this approach Formative assessment: Exit card – students tell in a few sentences what they know about the day’s clear target
The Close Reading Process:Tying a Close Reading Lesson to Writingand Assessment
Perspective • Viewpoint • Standpoint • The way we see things • Outlook • Point of view
Perspective • The green moss-filled pond presented itself as we came over the hill. • Read the sentence from the perspective of a swimmer. Would the swimmer be excited? Do you think s/he would want to dive in? Why or Why not? • Read the sentence from the perspective of a fisherman. Would the fisherman be excited? What do you think s/he would be thinking?
The House • How do our backgrounds and ideas influence what we read? • What are some disadvantages if we only read material through our perspective?
The House • Vocabulary that might be troublesome to the reader: • observe • musty • brag • naturalist • peer