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  1. Fruits Plant Science Unit 2

  2. Fruit • In flowering plants – fruit is a mature ripened _________ that contains the seeds • A fruit is defined as a ripened ovary • Pericarp – the ovary wall • May consist of two or three layers: exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp

  3. Pericarp

  4. Fruit Types Simple Aggregate Multiple

  5. Simple Fruit • A simple fruit – develops from a single ovary of a single flower • Can be either fleshy or dry when mature • Simple fleshy fruit • Berry

  6. Simple Fleshy Fruit • Berry – entire fruit wall is soft and fleshy at maturity. Inside is slimy. Contains no stony layer but contains one to many seeds. • Examples: Grapes, tomatoes, etc • Hesperidium - a berry with a tough, leathery rind (peel) • Examples: Oranges, lemons, other citrus

  7. Simple Fleshy Fruit • Drupe – outer part of fruit wall is soft and fleshy, inner part is hard and stony. Has a pit. • Examples: Peach, plum, cherries

  8. Simple Fleshy Fruit 4. Pepo – also a fleshy fruit with a tough outer rind All members of the squash family: pumpkin, melon, cucumber

  9. Simple Fleshy Fruit Pomes: most of the fleshy part of pomes develops from the enlarged base of the perianth (corolla and calyx) that has fused with the ovary wall Examples: Pears, apples

  10. Simple Dry Fruits • Simple dry fruits are dry (not fleshy) at maturity. Simple dry fruits that open at maturity include capsules and legumes • Capsule – fruit is dry at maturity and splits open along several seams • Example: Cotton

  11. Simple Dry Fruit • Legumes are dry at maturity and split open along __________ seams • Examples: pea pods, bean pods, peanut

  12. Simple Dry Fruits Simple dry fruits that do NOT open at maturity include: • Caryopsis: seed coat is fused to the ovary wall • Examples: corn, wheat • Nuts: single-ovary wall and seed coat remain separate, ovary wall is very hard • Example: acorn s

  13. Aggregate Fruit • An aggregate fruit develops from one flower with many separate pistils/carpels, all ripening simultaneously • Examples: strawberry, raspberry, blackberry

  14. Multiple Fruit • Multiple fruit develops from ovaries of several flowers borne/fused together on the same stalk • Example: pineapple

  15. What is the purpose of the fruit? • The main function of the fruit is to disperse the seeds • Dispersal is important because • It spreads the progeny in order to colonize new environments • Reduces the chances of predators destroying all of the plant’s yearly seed production • Reduces plant competition • 4 types of dispersal

  16. Self Dispersal Plants disperse their seeds by forceful ejection – explosive fruits! Witch hazel, squirting cucumber (jet propulsion)

  17. Self Dispersal The peanut plant sows (buries) its own seeds! Geocarpic: carpel grows inside the earth

  18. Wind Dispersal Fruit and seeds may have special devices for wind dispersal Plumes catch wind currents: dandelion Trees take advantage of their great heights for wind dispersal. Fruits with wings are used to slow the descent to land: maple, ash fruit

  19. Water Dispersal • Fruits and/or seeds use flotation devices to travel by water • Fruit may have air spaces, waterproof coverings, and corky floats • Example: coconuts

  20. Animal Dispersal Some dry fruit attach and cling to animals Some have velcro-like hooks that cling to animal fur (burdock, cockleburs) Others that sticky substances that stick to host (mistletoe)

  21. Check it out! Gives more examples of how specific fruits are dispersed