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SYMPOSIUM ON VISITOR SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE CARIBBEAN PowerPoint Presentation
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SYMPOSIUM ON VISITOR SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE CARIBBEAN

SYMPOSIUM ON VISITOR SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE CARIBBEAN

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SYMPOSIUM ON VISITOR SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE CARIBBEAN

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  1. SYMPOSIUM ON VISITOR SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE CARIBBEAN CRIME AND HARASSMENT OF TOURISTS/VISITORS ANALYSIS, ASSESSMENT AND RECOMMENDATIONS PRESENTER: CLIFFORD E. GRIFFIN, PhD September 22-23, 2003

  2. 2003 World Tourism Forecast • US$4,544.2 billion of economic activity • 11.2 per cent of total exports • 10.2 per cent of GDP • 194,662,000 jobs • 7.6 per cent of total employment • Source: World Travel & Tourism Council

  3. Caribbean Travel and Tourism Industry 2003 Forecast • US$34.6b economic activity—3% growth • 567,870 jobs—1.4% employment growth • US$6.5b or 1.8% industry GDP growth • 1,857,000 jobs—1.4% growth in Travel and Tourism economy • US$23.1b or 2.3% growth in Tourism economy

  4. Travel and Tourism Economy • 1,857,000 jobs—12% of total employment • US$23.1b or 13% of GDP • US$16.2b exports—16.2% of total exports • US$7.6b capital investment, 22.3% of total • US$2.0b Government exp., 8.8% share

  5. Caribbean Travel and Tourism 10-year Projections to 2013 • 5.5% Travel/Tourism growth to US$78.4b • 6.7% growth to US$16.3b in direct benefits • 6.7% growth to US$53b for Tourism and Travel economy overall • 5.6% direct sector jobs growth to 975,800 • 4.7% Travel/Tourism Econ jobs growth to 2,945,100 overall

  6. Caribbean Travel and Tourism 10-year Projections to 2013 • 7% growth in visitor exports to US$36.3b • 3.5% growth in capital invest to US$14.3b • 3.5% gov’t expenditure growth to US$3.8b • Source: World Travel & Tourism Council at • http://www.wttc.org/measure/PDF/Caribbean

  7. Caribbean Travel and Tourism… • Almost unparalleled globally as a source of income, employment, hard currency earnings and economic growth • Sustainability is intimately linked to visitor safety and security

  8. Tourist/Visitor Safety and Security Picture • Pre-9-11: security #1 concern for 15% of visitors • Post-9-11: safety #1 reason for choosing a particular destination • Historically, tourism destinations covered up their security • Today, travelers no longer fear tourism security but demand it • Increasingly police are viewed as economic development tools

  9. Regional Tourist/Visitor Safety and Security Concerns • Food; • Health and Health Care Delivery/Facilities • Transportation • road, air and water; traffic accidents • Signage • Accommodation • Environment Management • Employment • Crisis response/disaster management systems • Harassment; Crime; Terrorism

  10. Concerns for Governments and Tourism Stakeholders • Perception of rising crime levels against tourists/visitors • Perception that region’s rising crime rates may adversely affect the tourism industry • Region’s openness may be conducive to crimes of opportunity as well as planned crimes • Increasing complaints of harassment by tourists/visitors

  11. Perception of Crime in Trinidad % Perception of Crime in Tobago % Very Serious 61.0 Very Serious 6.8 Serious 18.6 Serious 35.6 Somewhat Serious 10.2 Somewhat Serious 23.7 Not Serious 1.7 Not Serious 10.2 No Response 8.5 No Response 20.3 COMPARATIVE STAKEHOLDER ATTITUDES TOWARD CRIME IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  12. Focus… • Crime against tourists/visitors • Harassment of tourists/visitors • Crime committed by tourists/visitors

  13. Tourist/Visitor • VISITOR—non-residents who visit a country • TOURIST—visitors who spend at least one night in a country • CRUISE SHIP PASSENGER—regarded as tourist

  14. Tourist/Visitor • Crime data do not distinguish between tourist and cruise ship passenger • While the crime rate against all visitors will provide a fairly accurate overall picture, it will somewhat understate the risk for tourists.

  15. Crime and Violence: Definition • Crime, including assault, battery, rape, murder, etc. are considered acts of violence • Analytically useful to distinguish between crime, acts of violence and harassment

  16. Crime and Violence: Definition • CRIME: “A social harm that the law makes punishable;” • VIOLENCE: “unjust or unwarranted use of force, usually accompanied by fury, vehemence, or outright rage.” • Source: Black’s Law Dictionary 7th ed., 1999.

  17. Harassment: Definition • Annoying behavior carried to extremes. • Behavior need not be annoying initially • persistence→annoyance • Extreme annoyance→harassment. • “Words, conduct, or action (usually repeated or persistent) that, being directed as a specific person, annoys, alarms, or causes substantial emotional distress in that person and serves no legitimate purpose”

  18. Crime and Harassment in Perspective… • PriceWaterhouse Coopers 2nd annual survey of Jamaican hoteliers, Nov 2001... • Crime and Harassment are the most important issues that will affect hotel occupancies and earnings—49%; • In 2000--until crime and harassment are reduced, sector will fall far short of its potential; • Reduction of crime and harassment the #1 problem to be resolved if tourism industry is to improve earnings and occupancies-- 66.1%.

  19. HARASSMENT • “It is disquieting to have strangers stand in your path or ‘shadow’ you while you walk, all the time begging or offering their unsolicited ‘services.’ On a recent trip to Ocho Rios I witnessed blatant tourist harassment and since there were no policemen anywhere in sight, I had to take it on myself to call the fellow aside and tell him that he is killing our country by his selfish act.” (Garth A. Rattray, Gleaner, May 1, 2001).

  20. Tourist/Visitor Victimization Data Issues… • Reliable data difficult to obtain • Where produced, closely guarded by many tourism-reliant destinations • Tendency to suppress information about extent of crime and harassment of tourists/visitors. • General concern: publishing/publicizing data would injure sector.

  21. Regional Tourist/Visitor Crime Data Problems • All jurisdictions collect crime data • Variation in data collection/management • Some do not discriminate between local and tourist/visitor crime • Few collect tourist/visitor crime data • Tourist/visitor crime underreported • Tourist/visitor’s short stay • Belief that police can/will do little about it • Reported if victim wishes to file insurance • Recorded crimes against tourists/visitors will be less than actual

  22. Nature of Tourist/Visitor Crime • Mainly against stay-over visitors rather than against cruise ship visitors—3 types of crime… • Property crimes • Robbery/theft from hotel/guest houses, vehicles, beaches and public places, remote sight-seeing tours • Sometimes results in bodily harm • Unwelcome Sexual Advances • Especially against women (often leads to rape) • Offering Sale of Illicit Drugs • GOAL: to secure cash or potable property

  23. Perpetrators’ Views of Tourists/Visitors • Normally very wealthy • Take risks: • Go out after dark, visit clubs/pubs, drink and get careless • Perpetrators consider a street mugging is considered less risky than a hotel room burglary

  24. Tourist/Visitor Dishonesty • Guests skip out on their bills • Theft of other guests’ property • Make false claims of impolite/improper service • Make false claims about loss of property • Make fraudulent insurance claims • Commit credit card fraud • Write bad checks (travelers and personal) • Pass counterfeit money • Engage in other illicit activities: • Drug trafficking, gun running, money laundering, prostitution, alien smuggling

  25. Recorded Crimes Against Tourists/Visitors to Barbados 1980-2000 900 800 700 600 500 incidence of crime Recorded Crimes 400 300 200 100 0 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 years

  26. Recorded Crimes Against Tourists/Visitors to Barbados 1980-2000 900 849 821 800 797 758 751 750 701 700 690 611 600 564 539 523 incidence of crime 500 494 Recorded Crimes 439 436 416 415 400 379 352 345 323 300 200 100 0 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 years

  27. Distribution of Recorded Crime Against Tourists/Visitors to Barbados 1980-2000 Burglary 51 % 22% Robbery 9% Other Theft Theft From Beach 7% Theft From Motor Vehicle Types of Crime 3% Distribution of Recorded Crime Theft From Person 3% Aggravated Burglary 2% Wounding 2% 1% Sex Offences 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% percentages

  28. Reported Crimes Against Tourists/Visitors to Tobago 1996-2002 180 160 153 151 147 140 120 113 incidence of crime 100 85 No of Crimes 80 66 58 60 40 20 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 years

  29. Tobago Tourist-Visitor Crimes 1996-2002 180 160 153 151 147 140 120 Incidence of Crime 113 100 No of Crimes 85 80 66 60 58 40 20 0 2000 1996 1997 1998 1999 2001 2002 Years

  30. Reported Crimes Against Tourists/Visitors to TT Jan 2002 to July 2003 14 12 10 8 Trinidad Tobago Totals monthly incidence of crime 6 4 2 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul months

  31. Types and Distribution of Crimes Against Tourists/Visitors to TT Jan 2002-Jul 2003 Murder 0.70% 1.50% Kidnappings 1.50% Wounding Sexual Offenses 1.50% Types of Crime 6.60% Distribution of Crime Assaults Burglaries 9.60% 12.50% Housebreakings Robberies 18.40% 47.70% Larcenies 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% percentage distribution of crime

  32. Reported Crimes Against Cruisers in TT in 2002 Wounding With Intent 1 1 Robbery With Violence 1 Robbery With Aggravation types of crime 5 Crimes Against Cruisers Larceny Dhingy and Engine Larceny Boat Engine 1 3 Larceny From Boat 3 Larceny 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 number of incidences

  33. REPORTS OF CRIMES AGAINST CRUISERS IN 2OO2 4.5 4 4 3.5 3 2.5 MONTHLY INCIDENCE OF VICTIMIZATION Yachties 2 2 2 1.5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec MONTHS

  34. Annual Yacht Arrivals To Trinidad and Tobago 1992- 2002 Annual Yacht Arrivals 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Years

  35. MAIN FORMS OF HARASSMENT • Pressure to buy things they do not wish • Attempts to sell them drugs (ganja, coke, crack) • Being followed around • Being pushed around • Being pushed and shoved into taxis • Being approached for sex or to buy sexual favors • Being approached to sell foreign currency • Being pushed and shoved in shopping areas

  36. MAIN FORMS OF HARASSMENT • Being pressured to braid hair • Being pressured to hire guides • Being abused or threatened • Using incentives to entice tourists/visitors to patronize a particular business or activity • Trailing and following tourists/visitors closely anticipating their needs • Overcharging for goods and services • Verbal abuse when services offered are not accepted

  37. Most Frequent Type of Harassment % Most Frequent Type of Crime % Taxi Drivers 12.5 Theft of Money 33.7 Tour Operators 0 Theft of Property or Jewelry 32.5 Hair Braiders 1.4 Rape 0 Tour guides 2.8 Armed Robbery 7.2 Craft Sellers 6.9 Assault 7.2 Beach Boys 23.4 Other 4.8 No Response 20.8 No Response TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO STAKEHOLDER ATTITUDES TOWARD CRIME AND HARASSMENT OF VISITORS

  38. HARASSERS’ PERSPECTIVE • Individuals do not view persistent sales pitch as harassment; • Behavior consistent with Caribbean culture of salesmanship is aggression--to make a sale, interest a potential customer, or get a fare. • Do not view persistent sales pitches to tourists/visitors lying on the beach or walking in the streets as being disturbing or a nuisance.

  39. TOURIST/VISITOR HARASSMENT RATES

  40. PRINCIPAL AREAS OF HARASSMENT

  41. FORMS OF HARASSMENT EXPERIENCED

  42. Stakeholders' Views of Most Frequent Types of Harassment 20.8 No Response Beach Boys 23.4 Craft Sellers 6.9 main types of harassers Tour guides 2.8 1.4 Hair Braiders 0 Tour Operators Taxi Drivers 12.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 frequency of harassment