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WWI Ends

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WWI Ends

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  1. WWI Ends

  2. Armistice signed Nov. 11, 1918 (Agreement to stop fighting)

  3. Devastation of War • Loss of Life • 10 million soldiers dead • 21 million soldiers wounded • 10-16 million civilians dead • Total cost of WWI over $338 Billion • Much of Europe destroyed (infrastructure and economy) • US – global power – from debtor nation to world’s largest creditor

  4. A Lost Generation

  5. Political Effects • Political boundaries change inside and outside of Europe • new countries/redrawing of borders • Many old monarch families were replaced by new DEMOCRATIC governments: • Russia – Communist Govt • Germany – Kaiser gone • Austria-Hungary – Hapsburgs abdicated & 2 separate republics emerged & sued for peace • Ottoman Empire – Turks launch Armenian Genocide in 1915

  6. Empires crumble

  7. Peace Settlement • Allies met at Paris Peace Conference • Treaty of Versailles • 32 Nations involved • “Big Four” Allied Powers • USA=Woodrow Wilson • Britain=David Lloyd George • France=George Clemenceau • Italy=Vittorio Orlando

  8. Paris Peace Treaty • Central Powers - not invited • New Russian gov’t - not invited • Majority of Allies wanted to punish and humiliate the Central Powers • “Make Germany pay for War” • Britain, France, and Italy wanted to disarm and weaken Germany • U.S. (Wilson) wanted a stable Germany – prevent future war

  9. The Big Four

  10. The “Big Four”DO NOT WRITE THIS DOWN!!! • Britain (David Lloyd-George) Many in Britain (having seen their husbands, sons and friends killed in the war) were eager for revenge. A popular saying was "Squeeze them until the pips squeak".However Lloyd-George himself was worried about the dangers of treating Germany too harshly. • France (George Clemenceau) Clemenceau was nicknamed "The Tiger". He wanted to make Germany pay for all the damage that France suffered during the years of fighting.Clemenceau wanted to punish Germany so that it couldn't ever start a war again.

  11. DO NOT WRITE THIS DOWN!!! • America (Woodrow Wilson) The USA had only declared war in April 1917 and thus experienced far fewer casualties. Wilson arrived in Europe with his 'Fourteen Points'. These were his plans to ensure future peace in Europe. He believed Germany should be treated fairly and that a 'League of Nations' should be set up to settle future disputes between countries. • Italy (Vittorio Orlando) Italy had declared war on Germany in 1915, changing sides from her alliance with Germany at the beginning of the war. Italy had been promised territory as a reward for changing sides. Italy wanted its 'fair share' from the spoils of war. • Germanywas not invited to the peace treaty. The German Gov’t expected the treaty to be based on Wilson's Fourteen Points.

  12. Wilson’s 14 Points • President Wilson’s plan for a just and lasting peace • Points 1-13 --- self-determination for all nations • Nations deciding for themselves what type of government they wanted to live under • Refused to meet w/ Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam – self-determination for “Whites” only • Point 14 --- League of Nations—an association of all world nations to work together to maintain peace

  13. Treaty of Versailles • Final peace treaty signed June 28, 1919 • Allies only adopted Wilson’s 14th point (L.O.N.) • Germany was big loser in Treaty • Terms of the Treaty: • Germany had to take full responsibility for the war • Germany had to pay for all the war damage (reparations) - later set at ~33 million USD. • Germany’s army reduced to 100,000 men

  14. Treaty of Versailles continued • Germany disarmed • could not have an Airforce or submarines, and was limited to only six large Navy ships • Germany lost territory on all sides • Poland, Alsace-Lorraine • Germany lost all colonies

  15. The Middle East after WWI

  16. Treaty of Versailles, 1919 • Above:On the foreground the German delegation (Müller, standing, and Bell, sitting) signing the Treaty of Versailles, on June 28th, 1919. • Painting (detail) by W. Orpen.

  17. A stable peace? • Some regarded treaty as “a peace built on quicksand” • League of Nations

  18. Wilson came home from Paris and toured the US trying to persuade the American public to urge Congress to ratify the Treaty and sign onto the League of Nations Congress did not ratify the Treaty and the US never joined the League of Nations