Rehabilitation Careers Standard • 7) Gather information on the history and development of physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and athletic training, including but not limited to significant changes in the profession, major contributors to the field, and impactful practices that were developed. Document findings from print and digital professional journals, rehabilitation career related websites, and textbooks in an oral, visual, digital, or paper product with proper citations.
Take a moment to think of some of the things (occupations) you have done today to attend school…. • Have you had a shower, • Had breakfast with family, • Driven a car? Now imagine this...
HOW WOULD YOU… HAVE A SHOWER IF… • You have rigidity in your muscles? • You had poor balance? • You couldn’t reach your arms up to your hair?
HOW WOULD YOU… HAVE BREAKFAST WITH FAMILY IF… • You couldn’t hold a spoon/fork? • You take a long time to finish your meal? • You just couldn’t cope with getting out of bed?
HOW WOULD YOU… DRIVE A CAR IF… • You were paralyzed from the waist down? • You were fearful leaving the garage? • You lost the use of your right hand?
HOW WOULD YOU… HAVE COME TO SCHOOL IF… • You had pain in your back? • You heard voices in your head? • You had tremors in your hands?
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS …have the knowledge and the skills to help people overcome these and other barriers they may face in doing their everyday occupations!
What is anOccupational Therapist? Health Care Professionals who enable people to lead a more productive, satisfying, and independent life by offering therapeutic techniques to restore function to the everyday things that occupy their time
Who do Occupational Therapists work with? Children Adolescents Seniors Adults
Where do Occupational Therapists work? • Hospitals • Schools/Special schools • Mental Health Facilities • Armed forces • Old Homes • Private Clinics • Rehabilitation Centers • Community Health Centers • Insurance Companies • Client Homes • Client Work Places
THE ROLE OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPISTS • INCREASE AND MAINTAIN INDEPENDENCE IN ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING (ADL’s) • INCREASE MOBILITY & CO-ORDINATION
Activities of Daily Living(ADL’s) Basic ADL’s Instrumental ADL’s Interaction with physical environment Putting things away & getting things out of the closet Telephoning Written communication Using paper money, checks or coins Using books, newspapers & entertainment equipments Using public/private transportation Leisure activities Self care • Feeding • Grooming • Dressing • Bathing • Personal hygiene • Toileting
Correct positioning. It may be useful to reduce the distance between the hands and mouth e.g. raising the table or plate, or by positioning the patient so that his elbows can be used as a pivot in order to assist hand movement
Mobility & Co-ordination Aim Gait Balance Transfers
Co-ordination: large bilateral and rhythmic activities with little resistance. As co-ordination improves the time spent on each activity can be increased and the size of movement decreased. Regular practice of writing patterns.
Writing: Initially: Blackboard large poster-sized sheets of paper Later : Rhythmical writing patterns using widely spaced lines.
Progressions to writing letters and words. Writing aids: Padded pens Writing board Roller ball pen (easier than fountain or ball point pen).
Support for the patient and his family Reassure Therapist should help the family to be realistic in their expectations. The family should not expect the patient to perform activities beyond his capacity, but emphasize those he can do.
Social Activities Work in small groups (to avoid isolation and to assist communication). Positive and purposeful. Familiar and interesting activities A wide variety of stimuli in the form of colour, sound and touch. The therapist should work within the concentration span of the patient. Maintain social contact through Hobbies Pastimes. Visits. Outings.
History of Occupational Therapy • It is believed that Occupational Therapy was used for treatment of patients with mental or emotional disorders a long time back in 100 BC. For the first time, a Greek physician named Asclepiades used therapeutic massages, exercises, baths, and music to heal stress and soothe their minds. Later, another Greek philosopher, Celsus used similar therapies like conversation, travel, and music with his patients.
History continued • In 18th century, two Europeans, Phillippe Pinel and Johann Christian Rell adopted this method and ameliorate the hospital system. During this era, they quitted metal chains and involved some relaxing activities and meticulous work in their procedure of treating such patients.
History continued • Occupational therapy emerged as a profession in 1917 in the United States of America when the National society for Promotion of Occupational Therapy (now known as American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA)) was established. It was officially named as Occupational Therapy in 1920. This association was found with the belief in remedial properties of human occupation. This therapy played a vital role in the treatment of patients suffering with AIDS, polio, tuberculosis, etc.
In 1975, to enhance the abilities of disabled children for their active participation in regular school activities, many public schools offered employment to thousands of occupational therapists. For this, they followed the enactment of legislation known as the Education for all Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142). Candidates with approved program programs are certified by AOTA, since then. In 1940s, aspirants who wanted to practice as a registered occupational therapist were required to own a bachelor’s degree for certification. But in 1990, this requisite was changed to master’s degree level. Soon after this, doctorate’s degree programs of occupational therapy evolved. Now, all the programs related to the profession are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education, and the certification for all over the country is granted by the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy
History continued • Till 2007, registered occupational therapists were required to have a Bachelor of Science degree in occupational therapy. But, since 2007, prerequisite to enter in the profession is a master’s degree (M.A., M.S. or MOT). Other than this, a professional doctoral degree can also work. • In order to enter into the field, a candidate must have at least a master’s or a higher degree in occupational therapy. In the year 2012, there were about 300 occupational therapy and occupational therapy assistant programs in the United States and its territories.