Why come to Texas? • to escape the cruel conditions on the haciendas (large estate or ranch in Spanish territory) in New Spain. • driven to the area by droughts or other natural disasters • to escape an oppressive tax system (oppressive – unjust or cruel due to an abuse of power)
Why come to Texas? • A few colonists hoped to become wealthy by trading with the French –an activity that was illegal in New Spain. • Colonists hoped to get better jobs on northern ranches.
The Spanish Texans Most were seeking better lives.
Living in the northern provinces of New Spain was difficult. Fear of attack by hostile natives! Deadly diseases Hacienda owners took hostiges www.kfki.hu/~arthp/ art/p/post/frans/hacienda.jpg
Four Types of Frontier Settlements • 1. Missions • 2. Presidios • 3. Towns • 4. Ranchos Settlers had to work together to survive. They established four kinds of settlements in the frontier
Missions • By 1750, there were more than 20 Spanish missions in Texas. They were run by Catholic priests. Most were built near Indian villages, in hopes to convert the Indians. • Missions had: • 1. walls surrounding them for protection • 2. houses, school, church, and workplaces • 3. most had farms and ranches
Why were missions built in Texas? • Spain wanted land in Texas. France also wanted the same land. Spain established missions to protect their interests. They used native people they had converted to help them. • Spain hoped that the resources in the Americas would pay for their exploration and colonization throughout the world. • Spain wanted everyone to be a Catholic. Their goal was to convert the Native Americans to their way of worship and thinking. The churches in the missions served this function.
Native Texans • Came to missions to avoid hunger and enemy tribes • Were forced to do mission work such as build buildings • Left missions because they did not like being bossed around by the priests • Most Native Texans returned to missions over and over because of hunger
SPANISH CONTROL OF THE TEXAS BORDERLANDS To control the Texas borderlands the Spanish built 4 types of settlements: • missions – religious communities • presidios – military bases • towns – small villages with farmers and merchants • ranchos – or ranches
New Missions along the Rio Grande • In the late 1600’s, the Spanish began building missions just south of the Rio Grande. • They also built missions among the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. • In 1680, a Pueblo leader named Pope led a revolt, or revolution, against the Spanish. This Pueblo Revolt, drove the Spanish out of New Mexico.
THE SPANISH ESTABLISHED MISSIONS ALONG THE WESTERN RIO GRANDE • To provide a place to live for settlers fleeing the Pueblo Revolt • To use missions as a base to retake New Mexico Pueblo Revolt – revolution led by Pueblo leader Popé against the Spanish in New Mexico
Missions • In 1682, the Spanish built the first mission in Texas, just east of present-day El Paso. This mission was called Corpus Christi de la Ysleta.
To control the borderlands Mission System Goal Goal Goal Four types of Spanish settlements Spanish Settlements on the Frontier Represent Spanish govern-ment there Convert AmericanIndians there toCatholicism Developsettlements there missions, presidios, towns, ranchos
FAILURE OF SPANISH MISSIONS IN EAST TEXAS • Location too remote • Floods, droughts, disease • Internal conflicts • Indians not interested in religious instruction
SAN ANTONIO RIVER AREA • Midpoint between the East Texas missions and the Rio Grande settlement • Mild climate and location by a river • Became the site of the most successful Texas missions and settlements
WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND SPAIN AFFECTS TEXAS • Led to the Chicken War, which caused Spain to abandon East Texas • Re-established Spanish control of the region • Separated control of French Louisiana and Spanish Texas
WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND SPAIN AFFECTS TEXAS Chicken War – conflict between French and Spanish in Texas where the French attacked Mission San Miguel de Linares de los Adaes
Spanish Return to Texas • France and Spain decide to work together for the missions in East Texas • Spain wants to spread Christianity • France wants to trade with the Indians • Spain builds 6 new missions
Problems with Spanish Missions • Missions were over 500 miles away from Spanish settlements • Apaches and Comanches raided the supplies wagons • Difficult to get supplies to
How to solve the problems • Built missions on the San Antonio River as a mid way point • Missions included: De Bexar and Alamo • Built El Camino Reel- only road going from the East missions to Mexico
France and Spain at War Spanish abandon East Texas Effect Effect Effect War and Expansion Chicken War (June 1719) Aguayo Expedition Spanish re-occupation of East Texas Expansion of Spanish settlement (Los Adaes, La Bahía) Agreement to separate control of French Louisiana and Spanish Texas
MISSIONS PURPOSE • colonizing Texas • convert Native Texans to the Catholic faith • taught the natives to be good citizens • taught natives to be loyal subjects of the Spanish crown Subjects – one who is under the authority of a king or queen
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION MISSIONS • square compound • enclosed by four walls • towers for lookout points • offices for the priests • chapel • shops (carpentry, ironworking, etc.)
Inside the Mission Compound Wall Tower Used for lookout points. Workshop Offices Workshop Used for making things needed in the mission such as cloth or tools. Chapel The Chapel would have been used for baptisms, weddings, and funerals. The land around the mission was used for livestock and for planting crops.
Daily Life in the Missions • Morning Prayers • 30 minutes of religious teaching • Rosary • Breakfast • Work in the fields or workshops for the men • Work in the kitchen or cooking for the women • School for the children • Dinner • Religious teaching • Prayers • Bedtime And if you didn't like it . . . • You might be punished for not working. • You could be recaptured if you tried to run away. • You might have to return to hunger and cold winters outside the mission. Brrrrr….
MISSIONS • Spanish missions in Texas were expected to support themselves. • They had to provide everything the mission residents needed to survive.
MISSIONS • Spain hoped that the missions would soon start making money for the crown. • Successful missions would make them a productive part of New Spain rather than a constant financial drain.
MISSIONS • If the settlers at the missions were productive, Spain promised to give them control of the missions. • The settlers were promised they could have their own local government. • Spain also promised the settlers some land for farming.
Hard Times in the Missions • The number of natives living in the missions went down. • Women died giving birth. • Native Texans were exposed to disease. • Native Texans weren’t used to the food in the mission.
MISSIONS They were not as immediately successful as Spain hoped.
Presidios P U R P O S E • Provided military support for the missions • Protected the colonists and mission from attacks by Native Texans • Presidio soldiers went after natives who ran away from the mission • These soldiers also guarded people bringing supplies and cattle across Texas
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION Presidios • The presidios were built from logs, adobe, or stone found around the area. • The compounds were rectangular and had tall walls with lookout points. • The presidio would have had places for the soldiers to sleep, a chapel, and a storage room. • Soldiers would have entered the presidio through a large gate.
Presidio Daily Life • Soldiers who lived in the presidio served for 10 years and had a harsh life. • They were in danger of attack by Native Texans. • They often didn’t get along with the priests in the mission. • They weren’t paid very much.
Presidio Daily Life • They had to buy their own uniforms and weapons at the presidio’s commissary. (commissary – a store where military personnel can buy equipment and food) • Presidio soldiers protected the mission. • Soldiers kept natives out of mission.
LIFE IN SPANISH SETTLEMENTS • Diverse populations • Consisted of homes, government buildings and stores • Economy based on farming and ranching • Social activities centered around church and family
The economy of the settlements was mostly based on farming and ranching. • The cattle business helped San Antonio and other towns grow. • Vaqueros, or cowboys, worked on ranches near the settlements. They were well known for their skills at horse riding and cattle handling.
Mission Government. • The ayuntamiento, governing council, enforced royal and local laws. • The alcalde, served as mayor, sheriff, and judge of small cases.
Examples of Spanish Influence in Texas Life in Spanish Texas routes of first Texas roads Catholic heritage and missions many Spanish place-names culture (architecture, art, food, language, music) cattle ranching traditions and terms legal traditions
Spanish Towns Develop • The Spaniards established four civil settlements in colonial Texas: • San Antonio de Bexar • La Bahia • Nacogdoches • Laredo (in Nuevo Santander)
Building Towns • To build homes, the settlers used materials from their surroundings. • logs • adobe • stone • If settlers didn’t have any of the materials listed above, they built jacals (ha-CAHLS). • Jacals were huts with thatched roofs and walls made from upright poles covered with clay or mud.
TOWNS • Native Texans began adapting to the Spanish culture: Many worked as blacksmiths, gunsmiths, bakers, shoemakers, and transported goods from town to town. • Merchants operated general stores, selling food, clothing, tools, and other goods. • Education was limited to well-to-do families. Literacy (ability to read and write) was limited to priests, government officials, and wealthy families.