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Power Struggles After Mao

Power Struggles After Mao

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Power Struggles After Mao

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  1. Power Struggles After Mao But First

  2. OPVL Paper 1 Practice

  3. Introduction • 1976, Mao dead • In charge of China since 1949 • Similar problems of economic stagnation • Will be able to achieve growth without losing one-party rule

  4. Mao • Closest political ally Zhou Enlai • Had consolidated the power of the CCP • Attempted to assert his independence of the USSR • Various political and economic actions • Five-year plan • Hundred Flowers • Anti-Rightist • Great Leap Forward • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

  5. Great Leap Forward • Jan. 1958, attempt to modernize agriculture and industry • Grouped in communes • Initial successes, but things go wrong, famine • 1959-61 Three Bitter Years • Some criticized Mao, led to loss of influence • Liu Shaoqi took over as president • Allowed private plots, bonuses, recovery

  6. Socialist Education and Rightist Deviations • Mao concerned about creeping capitalism • Corrected Rightist deviation with new movement, rallies, meetings • May 1963, First Ten Points, set down socialist objectives • New versions by Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi, less firm • Mao supported by Lin Biao, minister of defense, used PLA to publish Quotations

  7. Intellectuals and Revolutionary Successors • 1964, sent intellectuals away to learn from peasants • Wanted education combined with productive labor • Further concerns about capitalists • 1965, Twenty-three Articles • Start of Cultural Revolution • Liuists versus Maoists divided

  8. Cultural Revolution • 1966, seeking to eliminate capitalism and restore power • Relied on PLA and youth • Became violent, 400,000 died • Called for Four Olds to be destroyed • Ideas, culture, customs, habits • Liu Shaoqi dismissed, Deng Xiaoping sent down to the countryside • Red Guards fought with one another, Mao calls in PLA • Production had been distracted, declined • Mao did gain power

  9. Power Struggle • Divisions growing • Liu had issued strong warnings about US in Vietnam • Had wanted to revive Soviet alliance • Lin Biao attacked Soviet and US imperialism • Mao and Zhou saw USSR as main threat • Lin and Mao vying for party control • 1970, attached Zhou’s foreign and domestic policies

  10. 571 Affair • Lin Biao with doubts about Mao’s direction • Minister of defense • Mao tried to remove supporters around him, ordered his troops away • 1970, Mao announces Nixon can visit • 1971, Lin vanished from public view • Purge of military and civilian admin.

  11. Rightists Versus Leftists • Liuists and Maoists still divided • 1973, Zhou Enlai helps Deng return to Beijing • Mao’s health deteriorating • Several rightists being restored • Led by Zhao and Deng • Leftists led by Jiang Qing, three radical party members • Gang of Four • 1973, rightists victories in elections

  12. Gang of Four • Jiang had headed GPCR • Yao Wenyuan, chief propagandist • Wang Hongwen, trade union leader • Zhang Chunqiao, deputy sec. of Shanghai’s Mun. Comm. • All favored more revolutionary approach • Power base with cultural or media organizations • Little support from military or in party

  13. Turn to the US • 1972, Nixon visit • Resulted in Shanghai Communique, normalization of Sino-American relations • Rightists wanted to build wealthy China • Leftists wanted to revolutionary line

  14. Four Modernizations • Economic plan between 1974-76 • Favored by Rightists • Deng and Zhou working together • Modernizations of agriculture, industry, science, technology defense • Jiang continued demands of CR • Mao dying, giving influence to nephew Mao Yuanxin • Gave Gang of Four an advantage

  15. Power Struggle 1976-81 • 1976, Zhou and Mao both die • Gang of Four still around • Leftists versus Rightists • Deng versus Jiang • Those in the middle, centrist group led by Hua Guofeng • No serious objections to him ascending after Mao’s death

  16. Qingming Festival, 1976 • April 1976, followed Zhou’s death in January • Paid respects to ancestors • Gang cut it short • Support for him was also critical of Mao and the Gang • Hua asks Mao what to do, uses force • Accusations against Deng, removed from power

  17. Mao’s Death • September 9, 1976 • Jiang tried to make it look life she was Mao’s choice successor • Hua and Jiang attack one another • Gang tries a coup in October • Military informs Hua, fails

  18. Defeat of the Gang of Four • Hua works with Deng to arrest Gang • Called emergency meeting of Politburo • Zhang and Wang arrested there • Yao and Jiang caught later • Portrayed as power hungry • Mao untarnished • Tried in 1980 for offenses of CR, Jiang said she only acted under Mao’s orders • All given life sentences, Yao 20 years

  19. Rise of Deng Xiaoping • Politburo gives Hua three tasks • Replace Mao • Rehabilitate Deng • Modernize • Deng quickly re-admittted to Politburo, Central Committee, State Council, Military Commission, Chief of Staff of PLA • Deng put in charge of Four Modernizations • Hua announced end of CR

  20. Hua and Whateversists • Uphold whatever Mao’s policies were and follow whatever his directions were • But many wanted to move on from him • Hua’s power being reduced by Deng • Challenge whatever approach • Criticized Lin Biao and Gang • Hua resigns as premier in 1980, replaced by Deng’s man, Zhao Ziyang • April 1981, Deng’s supporter Hu Yaobang, became GS of CCP • 1981, Hua resigns from all other posts • End of Mao era • Now modernization