Abnormal BehaviororPsychological Disorders Content as per College Board Abnormal Behavior 7-9 %
What is Normal? • In a small group of 3-5 students, determine what you would call “normal” • Not who, what is normal?
What is well-being? • In this same group, identify what is psychological order or well-being. • Is it just an absence of a disorder? • Is it more like that which makes a person healthy? • List 3-5 characteristics that make a person have “well-being”
Well being • Self acceptance • Positive relations with others • Autonomy • Environmental mastery • Purpose in life • Personal growth • ****As defined by Carol Ryff
What is a disorder? • There is no one absolute definition of psychological disorders • A continuum exists between mental health and pathology • Some proposed definitions include: • NOTE: Sanity and Insanity are legal definitions
American Psychiatric Association • A psychological disorder can be defined as a pattern of behaviors or psychological symptoms that cause significant personal distress and/or impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of life.
In your small group, • Review and discuss the provided assignment. • “What is Disordered Behavior?” • Record your thoughts upon discussion. • We will discuss this in 5-7 minutes.
Who suffers from disorders? • PBJ • Ideas? (no p in pb and j) • Diathesis-Stress Model
Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior • The ancient world • Greece • Hippocrates • Galen • China • Chung Ching
The Middle Ages • Europe • Islamic Countries
The Renaissance • Teresa of Avila • Johann Weyer and Reginald Scot
Humanitarian Reforms of 18th-19th centuries • Philippe Pinel • William Tuke • Benjamin Rush • Dorothea Dix
Deinstitutionalization • Occurred due to scientific advances of the 20th century • MRI, PET • Psychopharmacology • Release of patients back into their usual community using out- patient care
The DSM-V • On Amazon.com • $117 • Available on Kindle
The DSM-V • Published by the American Psychiatric Association • Widely used diagnostic system • Provides a set of criteria to make assessments
DSM Axes • Axis 1- 16 major categories of disorders • Axis 2 – personality disorders and developmental disorders (mental retardation) • Axis 3 medical conditions • Axis 4 - recent social and environmental stressors • Axis 5 – Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) • See handout
The positive and negative consequences of labeling Refer to the Rosenhan Study
Anxiety Disorders • Occurs when overwhelming anxiety disrupts social or occupational functioning or produces significant distress • Manifestations of anxiety: • Cognitive- • Behavioral- • Somatic-
Specific Anxiety Disorders • Panic Disorder- Recurrent and unexpected panic attacks are severe and involve feelings of terror and physiological involvement. • Generalized Anxiety Disorder- characterized by persistent high levels of anxiety and excessive worry with symptoms present for at least 6 months; more persistent than panic disorder
Specific Anxiety Disorders • Phobia – a persistent, unrealistic, irrational fear of specific objects or situations. Exposure to a feared stimulus produces intense panic or fear, anxiety dissipates when the phobic situation is not confronted • Examples • Three subcategories: • Simple phobias • Agoraphobia • Social Phobias
Specific Anxiety Disorders • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD) • Involves patterns of obsessions (thoughts, images or impulses that are recurrent or persistent despite a person’s efforts to suppress them) • Involves patters of compulsions (repetitive, purposeful, but undesired acts performed in a ritualized manner in response to an obsession) • Examples • Persons with the disorder acknowledge the senselessness of the behavior, but when anxiety rises, the ritualized behavior relieves tension
Examples • PTSD 10 mins • OCD 6 mins
Etiology- Causes or explanation of disorder
Etiology of anxiety disorders The learning perspective (behavioral) The cognitive perspective The biological perspective
Somatoform Disorders • Characterized by complaints of physical symptoms that have no organic or physiological explanation • They are psychologically based • Symptoms are not considered voluntary or under conscious control
Somatoform Disorders • Specific somatoform disorders • Somatization Disorder – characterized by multiple physical complaints with no organic explanation with onset prior to age 30. • Conversion Disorder- specific physical complaints (paralysis of legs, blindness) Patients strongly believe there is impairment, but may show less distress than with a real loss. • Hypocondriasis- characterized by persistent preoccupation with one’s health and physical condition, despite the fact that genuine symptoms are lacking
Examples • Body Dysmorphic Disorder • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAuc2xAM7-8&feature=related
Etiology The behavioral perspective These disorders constitute only 5% of all disorders treated with decreased incidence due to diagnosis advancements.
Dissociative Disorders • Characterized by disturbances or changes in memory, consciousness or identity due to psychological factors
Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative amnesia- involves partial or total loss of important personal information (memory) that may occur after a stressful or psychologically traumatic event. There is no organic cause. • Dissociative fugue- occurs when the individual suffers confusion over personal identity (memory) and often assumes a partial or completely new identity. It is accompanied by unexpected travel away from home.
Dissociative Disorders • Depersonalization Disorder- most common dissociative disorder that is characterized by feeling of unreality concerning the self and the environment. Characterized by intensity of symptoms and anxiety provoked by symptoms • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)- formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder • Kim Nobles 5 mins Oprah • DID Psych Exchange
DID • This is a rare, dramatic and controversial disorder. • Characterized by two or more distinct personalities within one person. • Original personality is unaware of other personalities, but the other personalities are aware of each other. • Each personality maintains its own identity, name and distinctive behavior. • Diagnosis is controversial, some say it is really PTSD
Explaining DID • Dissociation is a relatively common response to traumatic experiences • People with DID have experiences that are more extreme, frequent and disrupt daily functioning • Some psychologist say this is a diagnostic fad.
Examples • Amnesia • David 4 mins • Fugue • Reading “Joe” or John Doe • DID • male sufferer 4 mins
Personality Disorders • Characterized by long standing, chronic, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of perception, thought and behavior that seriously impair an individual’s ability for function personally or socially • Usually recognized by the time a person reaches adolescence • As a group, these disorders are among the least reliably judged and are questioned as to their existence
Clusters • Cluster A: Paranoid, Schizoid and Schizotypal (Odd or Eccentric Behaviors) • Cluster B: Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic and Narcissistic (Dramatic or Erratic Behaviors) • Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant and Dependent (Anxious or Fearful Behaviors)
Personality Disorders • Narcissistic personality disorder- marked by a grandiose sense of self-importance and preoccupation with fantasies of success or power. Individual is in constant need of attention or admiration and has inappropriate reactions to criticism
Personality Disorders • Antisocial personality disorder – marked by long standing pattern of irresponsible behavior that hurts others without causing feelings of guilt or remorse • Individual does not experience shame or intense emotion of any kind. • Violation of social norms, may include criminal acts • Some studies detect early signs of antisocial behavior in children as young as 3-6 years old