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Abnormal Behavior or Psychological Disorders

Abnormal Behavior or Psychological Disorders

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Abnormal Behavior or Psychological Disorders

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  1. Abnormal BehaviororPsychological Disorders Content as per College Board Abnormal Behavior 7-9 %

  2. What is Normal? • In a small group of 3-5 students, determine what you would call “normal” • Not who, what is normal?

  3. What is well-being? • In this same group, identify what is psychological order or well-being. • Is it just an absence of a disorder? • Is it more like that which makes a person healthy? • List 3-5 characteristics that make a person have “well-being”

  4. Well being • Self acceptance • Positive relations with others • Autonomy • Environmental mastery • Purpose in life • Personal growth • ****As defined by Carol Ryff

  5. What is a disorder? • There is no one absolute definition of psychological disorders • A continuum exists between mental health and pathology • Some proposed definitions include: • NOTE: Sanity and Insanity are legal definitions

  6. American Psychiatric Association • A psychological disorder can be defined as a pattern of behaviors or psychological symptoms that cause significant personal distress and/or impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of life.

  7. In your small group, • Review and discuss the provided assignment. • “What is Disordered Behavior?” • Record your thoughts upon discussion. • We will discuss this in 5-7 minutes.

  8. Who suffers from disorders? • PBJ • Ideas? (no p in pb and j) • Diathesis-Stress Model

  9. Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior • The ancient world • Greece • Hippocrates • Galen • China • Chung Ching

  10. The Middle Ages • Europe • Islamic Countries

  11. The Renaissance • Teresa of Avila • Johann Weyer and Reginald Scot

  12. Humanitarian Reforms of 18th-19th centuries • Philippe Pinel • William Tuke • Benjamin Rush • Dorothea Dix

  13. Deinstitutionalization • Occurred due to scientific advances of the 20th century • MRI, PET • Psychopharmacology • Release of patients back into their usual community using out- patient care

  14. Modes or Perspectives of Psychological Disorders

  15. The Biopsychological Perspective

  16. The Psychoanalytical Model

  17. The Behavioral Model

  18. The Cognitive Model

  19. The Biopsychosocial Model

  20. Others?

  21. The DSM-V • On Amazon.com • $117 • Available on Kindle

  22. The DSM-V • Published by the American Psychiatric Association • Widely used diagnostic system • Provides a set of criteria to make assessments

  23. DSM Axes • Axis 1- 16 major categories of disorders • Axis 2 – personality disorders and developmental disorders (mental retardation) • Axis 3 medical conditions • Axis 4 - recent social and environmental stressors • Axis 5 – Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) • See handout

  24. The positive and negative consequences of labeling Refer to the Rosenhan Study

  25. Anxiety Disorders

  26. Anxiety Disorders • Occurs when overwhelming anxiety disrupts social or occupational functioning or produces significant distress • Manifestations of anxiety: • Cognitive- • Behavioral- • Somatic-

  27. Specific Anxiety Disorders

  28. Specific Anxiety Disorders • Panic Disorder- Recurrent and unexpected panic attacks are severe and involve feelings of terror and physiological involvement. • Generalized Anxiety Disorder- characterized by persistent high levels of anxiety and excessive worry with symptoms present for at least 6 months; more persistent than panic disorder

  29. Specific Anxiety Disorders • Phobia – a persistent, unrealistic, irrational fear of specific objects or situations. Exposure to a feared stimulus produces intense panic or fear, anxiety dissipates when the phobic situation is not confronted • Examples • Three subcategories: • Simple phobias • Agoraphobia • Social Phobias

  30. Specific Anxiety Disorders • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD) • Involves patterns of obsessions (thoughts, images or impulses that are recurrent or persistent despite a person’s efforts to suppress them) • Involves patters of compulsions (repetitive, purposeful, but undesired acts performed in a ritualized manner in response to an obsession) • Examples • Persons with the disorder acknowledge the senselessness of the behavior, but when anxiety rises, the ritualized behavior relieves tension

  31. Examples • PTSD 10 mins • OCD 6 mins

  32. Etiology- Causes or explanation of disorder

  33. Etiology of anxiety disorders The learning perspective (behavioral) The cognitive perspective The biological perspective

  34. Somatoform Disorders

  35. Somatoform Disorders • Characterized by complaints of physical symptoms that have no organic or physiological explanation • They are psychologically based • Symptoms are not considered voluntary or under conscious control

  36. Somatoform Disorders • Specific somatoform disorders • Somatization Disorder – characterized by multiple physical complaints with no organic explanation with onset prior to age 30. • Conversion Disorder- specific physical complaints (paralysis of legs, blindness) Patients strongly believe there is impairment, but may show less distress than with a real loss. • Hypocondriasis- characterized by persistent preoccupation with one’s health and physical condition, despite the fact that genuine symptoms are lacking

  37. Examples • Body Dysmorphic Disorder • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAuc2xAM7-8&feature=related

  38. Etiology The behavioral perspective These disorders constitute only 5% of all disorders treated with decreased incidence due to diagnosis advancements.

  39. Dissociative Disorders

  40. Dissociative Disorders • Characterized by disturbances or changes in memory, consciousness or identity due to psychological factors

  41. Dissociative Disorders • Dissociative amnesia- involves partial or total loss of important personal information (memory) that may occur after a stressful or psychologically traumatic event. There is no organic cause. • Dissociative fugue- occurs when the individual suffers confusion over personal identity (memory) and often assumes a partial or completely new identity. It is accompanied by unexpected travel away from home.

  42. Dissociative Disorders • Depersonalization Disorder- most common dissociative disorder that is characterized by feeling of unreality concerning the self and the environment. Characterized by intensity of symptoms and anxiety provoked by symptoms • Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)- formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder • Kim Nobles 5 mins Oprah • DID Psych Exchange

  43. DID • This is a rare, dramatic and controversial disorder. • Characterized by two or more distinct personalities within one person. • Original personality is unaware of other personalities, but the other personalities are aware of each other. • Each personality maintains its own identity, name and distinctive behavior. • Diagnosis is controversial, some say it is really PTSD

  44. Explaining DID • Dissociation is a relatively common response to traumatic experiences • People with DID have experiences that are more extreme, frequent and disrupt daily functioning • Some psychologist say this is a diagnostic fad.

  45. Examples • Amnesia • David 4 mins • Fugue • Reading “Joe” or John Doe • DID • male sufferer 4 mins

  46. Personality Disorders

  47. Personality Disorders • Characterized by long standing, chronic, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of perception, thought and behavior that seriously impair an individual’s ability for function personally or socially • Usually recognized by the time a person reaches adolescence • As a group, these disorders are among the least reliably judged and are questioned as to their existence

  48. Clusters • Cluster A: Paranoid, Schizoid and Schizotypal (Odd or Eccentric Behaviors) • Cluster B: Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic and Narcissistic (Dramatic or Erratic Behaviors) • Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive, Avoidant and Dependent (Anxious or Fearful Behaviors)

  49. Personality Disorders • Narcissistic personality disorder- marked by a grandiose sense of self-importance and preoccupation with fantasies of success or power. Individual is in constant need of attention or admiration and has inappropriate reactions to criticism

  50. Personality Disorders • Antisocial personality disorder – marked by long standing pattern of irresponsible behavior that hurts others without causing feelings of guilt or remorse • Individual does not experience shame or intense emotion of any kind. • Violation of social norms, may include criminal acts • Some studies detect early signs of antisocial behavior in children as young as 3-6 years old