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The Respiratory System

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The Respiratory System

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  1. The Respiratory System Chapter 10, Page 334 – 351

  2. What Is A Respiratory System? • The system of organs involved in the uptake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between and organism and its environment. • Different organisms have different respiratory systems!

  3. Functions of Respiratory System 1. To maintain Homeostasis 2. To provide O2, and remove CO2, from cells = Gas Exchange 3. Contributes to our ability to talk

  4. Requirements of Respiratory System 1. Big surface area for gas exchange to occur at the rate to meet organism’s need 2. A moist environment for gases to dissolve FISH GILLS INSIDE HUMAN LUNGS

  5. Organization of The Respiratory System

  6. Passage of Air Through Our Respiratory System Upper Respiratory Tract: pg 335 1. Nose, mouth 2. Nasal cavity

  7. Upper Respiratory Tract Cont’d 5. Epiglottis: “flap” that stops food from entering trachea 6. Trachea: “windpipe”

  8. Lower Respiratory Tract: • (inside thoracic cavity) • Bronchi (bronchus-singular) : • Two small passageways that branch off the trachea and enter lungs. • Bronchioles: • Fine tubes that branch from the bronchi. • Lined with cilia and mucous

  9. Alveoli: pg 336/337 • Tiny sacs (in grape-like clusters) at end of bronchioles. • Site of gas exchange (via diffusion). • Pleura (pleuron-singular) • Flexible membrane around lung.

  10. Don’t write:Alveoli clusters at end of bronchioles. Average human lung has 70 to 90 m2 alveoli surface area. That’s about the size of a tennis court!

  11. Mechanics of breathing (pg 338) • Gases move from areas of high to low pressure. • What controls this pressure?? • Intercostal muscles:on ventral surface and ribcage • Diaphragm: muscle between thoracic and abdominal cavity

  12. Inhalation • Intercostals and diaphragm contract. • Ribs expand • Diaphragm lowers • Vol.increase and air pressure lowers • Lungs expand, air moves in.

  13. Expiration/Exhalation • Diaphragm and intercostals relax. • Ribs lower • Diaphragm rises • Vol. decreases, pressure increases. • Lungs shrink, air is forced out.

  14. Gas Exchange(pg339) • Between air in alveoli and blood in capillaries

  15. Lung Capacity (pg 340) • Tidal Volume: • vol. of air inhaled and exhaled in normal breathing • Inspiratory reserve volume: • additional vol. that can be inhaled after normal breath. • Expiratory reserve volume: • additional volume that can exhaled beyond normal breath.

  16. Vital Capacity: total vol. of air that can move in/out of lungs tidal vol. inspiratory reserve vol. + expiratory reserve vol. vital capacity

  17. Residual Vol: • air that remains in lungs and passageways after full exhalation. • can’t get rid of it • prevents lung collapse • Respiratory efficiency: • rate of oxygen transport to bloodstream from lungs.

  18. Diseases: • Lung cancer: • Uncontrolled growth of abnormal lung cells. • Carcinoma: a malignant, spreading tumour. • Once tumour cells enter lymphatic system the cancer “spreads”

  19. Non-Smoker vs. Smoker Black=from air pollution and second hand smoke Black=tar White=cancer

  20. Causes of lung cancer : • Cigarette smoke: • 87% of lung cancers. • Carcinogens cause lung cells to become anaplastic(less differentiated and quick to multiply since carcinogens damage DNA) • Radon: • a radioactive colorless, ordorless gas. • from soil and radiotherapy • Air pollution

  21. Amount and type of tar build up in lung per year of smoking 1 pack/day

  22. Treatments for Lung cancer: • Surgery • Radiation: • high energy x-ray that kills cancer cells. • Chemotherapy: • medication that kills cancer cells by preventing mitosis and causing apoptosis (cell suicide). • Also kills normal cells: hair loss, nausea.

  23. Diseases: • Pneumonia: • Inflamed alveoli fill with fluid. • lowers oxygen intake. • Types: • Lobar pneumonia: entire lobe • Bronchial pneumonia: patches of lung

  24. Lung with Pneumonia

  25. Causes: • Bacterial: • streptococcus pneumoniae,causes lobar pneumonia • Viral: • Shorter durations • Parasitic: • Mycoplasma,hardest to fight off Treatments: • vaccines and antibiotics

  26. Asthma: • Inflammation of airways due to irritants • bronchioles constrict due to muscle spasms • mucous build ups • Lowers oxygen intake.

  27. Treatments • Avoid triggers ( smoke, dust, pets……) • Medications: • Broncho-dilators/puffers: reduce inflammation • Anti-inflammatory drugs: prevent attacks