All About Deafness Holland High School Deaf Education 2008
Outer Ear The Outer Ear is the part of the ear that you see. This part of the ear is shaped round so it can send sound to Middle Ear. Without the Outer Ear shape-round, we wouldn’t hear as well (the sound could become faint). The Outer Ear sends sound to the Middle Ear.
Middle Ear Inside the Middle Ear are 3 little bones called the Hammer, the Anvil, and the Stirrup. The 3 bones are connected to the Ear Drum. When sound waves come into your Middle Ear, it causes the Ear Drum to vibrate like a drum. These vibrations can make the 3 little bones move as well.
Inner Ear The Inner Ear (Cochlea) has 3 parts. In the Center of Ear called Vestube. Inside Vestube there are little hairs and liquid. When the ear drum starts to vibrate, the liquid moves and the hair moves to make the message send to the brain through the auditory nerve.
Understanding your Audiogram Audiograms inform you of your level of hearing based on a test of various sound frequencies given by an audiologist (hearing doctor). Your hearing is based on decibels (dB) at each frequency or (Hz-hertz). To test your hearing - click the link below. http://phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/hearing.html
The yellow banana shaped figure represents all the sounds that make up the human voice when speaking at normal conversational levels. • Near total silence - 0 dB • A whisper - 15 dB • Normal conversation - 60 dB • A lawnmower - 90 dB • A car horn - 110 dB • A rock concert or a jet engine - 120 dB • A gunshot or firecracker – 140 dB Above is the decibels or dB of sound for each area of hearing.
RANGES OF HEARING LOSS The audiogram shows the ranges of hearing loss for adults. The ranges that are listed are fairly standard across the United States although some variations do exist. -10dB to 25dB = Normal range (Grey) 26dB to 40 dB = Mild hearing loss (purple) 41 dB to 55 dB = Moderate hearing loss (red) 56 dB to 70 dB = Moderately Severe hearing loss (green) 71 dB to 90 dB = Severe hearing loss (yellow) over 90 dB = Profound hearing loss. (blue)
Pre-NatalPre-natal means before birth The most common pregnancy-related cause of Deafness was “Prematurity” Prematurity means that the babies were born too early. Sometimes, the parts of the body were not developed completely It can cause hearing loss because the ears were not developed completely
The second most common pregnancy-related cause of Deafness is “Other Pregnancy Complications.” This is the second most common pregnancy related cause of deafness The children could become deaf if the pregnant women have any types of symptoms
The third most common pregnancy-related causes is “Cytomegalovirus” Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a any of a group of herpes viruses that attack and enlarge epithelial cells. Such viruses also cause a disease of infants characterized by circulatory dysfunction and microcephaly If pregnant women have CMV then, it could effect the children If the children receive CMV then, it could cause children mental and physical problems It can cause hearing loss
The next most common disease to cause Deafness is “Maternal Rubella” Maternal Rubella is German Measles in a pregnant woman that may cause developmental abnormalities in the fetus when occurring during the first trimester About 20% of Deaf people are deaf because of Maternal Rubella It causes the cochlea to be damage really bad.
Post-Natal Post-natal means after birth The most common post-natal cause of Deafness was Otitis Media Otitis Media or “Glue Ear” is a kind of ear infection that can causes hearing loss People who have this if the fluid is filling your ear tube too much and can causes continuous ear infections.
The second most common post-natal cause of Deafness is “Meningitis.” Meningitis can easily kill the children who were born Meningitis is an infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
The most common genetic cause of Deafness is “Genetic or Syndromic Causes” About 22% of people who became deaf was because of genetic causes. The most common of these was Down Syndrome
The second most common Genetic cause for Deafness is “CHARGE Syndrome” People could have a hearing loss is because their genes were not formed properly It could cause 4 major conditions and 7 minor conditions.
The third most common cause of Deafness is “Warrensburg Syndrome” It a kind of disease that can causes unique Physical features Sometimes, the person who has disease has different colors of hair and sometimes, their eye color does not match They could have some white patches on their skin
Another disease that can cause hearing loss is “Measles” Measles is an acute infectious disease occurring mostly in children, characterized by catarrhal and febrile symptoms and an eruption of small red spots; rubeola It can cause deafness in both ears
Cochlear Implants The Cochlear Implant is a little, complex electronic machine, that can help Deaf or Hard of Hearing people hear the sounds. The Cochlear Implant is very different from the Hearing Aid. Cochlear Implant can detected damaged part of the ear and send messages to the nerve. The Implant sends sound waves to the nerve and then to the brain. Only Deaf or Hard of Hearing people can receive a Cochlear Implant. 100,000 people in the world have received Implant. In U.S. 22,000 adults and 15,000 children received a Cochlear Implant.
How the Cochlear Implant Works Video http://video.about.com/deafness/Cochlear-Implants.htm Under search-type “Cochlear Implant Video”
Hearing Aids The first Hearing Aid was invented by a man named Harvey Fletcher who worked for Bell Laboratories. It was connected with a cord to a case that was attached on the body. Behind The Ear Aids (BTE) have a little plastic case that fits behind the ear and sends sound waves to the ear using electricity with a wire and mini speaker. BTE can be useful for children. ITE (In The Ear Aids) is a machine that fits inside the concha. Hearing aids must be replaced when children grow.
How the Hearing Aid Works • It must have the following to work properly: 1. A Microphone for sound. 2. An Electronic Circuit to help increase the sound. 3. A Receiver help send sound to Ear. 4. Batteries for electricity
American Sign Language (ASL) A visual language used by body and hand movements. ASL is a popular language in the USA and Canada. ASL and English are different because of grammar, plurals, tenses, body expression and fingerspelling. • Auditory-Verbal Deaf and Hard of Hearing learn to listen and communicate using spoken language. They wear hearing aids and cochlear implants to help listen. When using Auditory-Verbal, it is very important to provide extensive counseling, education and support. • Cued Speech Deaf and Hard of Hearing learn to communicate using a system of spoken English and 8 handshapes that represent vowels and consonants. The speak language and use the handshapes to see the unseen sounds. • Manually Coded English A sign system used to convey tenses, plurals, possessives and other syntactical forms of English. MCE system is different than ASL. MCE is used more in public schools. • Oral The children who are deaf and hard of hearing who have been identified with a hearing loss from an early age. They wear hearing aids or cochlear implants that helps them to understand spoken English. They are taught speech (lip reading). http://www.jtc.org/
Communicating with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students • Communicating with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students (readlip) try speaking slowly and clearly understand what people say. Deaf person need write noted to hearing person order to communicate. • If the person lipreads, try speaking slowly and clearly, using short phrases. Do not raise your voice! · If the person does not understand something you say, try rephrasing it. Don’t repeat the same thing over and over. • Do not cover your mouth. • Maintain eye contact. • Not all deaf people lipread, so it may not work! Try using gestures and pantomime. • It is not considered rude to offer a deaf person paper and a pen in order to communicate. • If you know the American Sign Language alphabet, use it! www.smc.edu/disabledstudent/guide/spec1def.htm
UbiDuo It is a thing that deaf people can use to communicate with any hearing person. You can bring UbiDuo to anywhere: a restaurant, the police department, and etc. You can buy two UbiDuos because one hearing person uses this and the Deaf person that you will have to communicate. The UbiDuo has a full-size keyboard You can use this for eight hours It has a rechargeable battery! The UbiDuo has wireless and you can set the UbiDuo from other UbiDuo up to 500 feet range through the walls or floors! It has some emoticons that allow to show your feelings and personality in conversations It costs about $1995.00
Telephone Ringer Amplifier with Strobe Light This amplifier can be used for hard of hearing and deaf people too For hard of hearing people, when the phone rings, it can ring loud enough for hard of hearing people For deaf, they have to set up the strobe light anywhere in their house. Then, when the phone rings, the strobe light will flash really bright to let the deaf people know that someone has to answer the phone now It costs about $34.95
Sennheiser Set 810/810S • The Sennheiser Set is for hard of hearing people only • It helps them to hear the T.V. easier without distracting other hearing people • You can use this only if you have Stereo or mono operation • People can use this about 600 feet away from the T.V.! • It costs about $229.00
ClearSounds CLA7 UltraClear Power Neckloop • This can be used for anyone who wears hearing aids • It helps them understand speech more clearly • Also, it can help improve their speech ability • You can bring this anywhere: school, meeting at work, and etc. • All you can hear is only from people who use this, you won’t hear from anyone else. It really helps them to listen to that person only without distracting other people talking • It costs about $119.95
Hearing Aid Sweatbands – Natural • Anyone who wear hearing aids can use it during any sport or activity that make you sweat a lot • They can buy any size of sweatbands for their hearing aids • Just add the small sweatbands on your hearing aids • It costs about $21.95 for all sizes
Sonic Boom SB300ss Alarm Clock • Tired of wake up late? No worry, we got a new clock for the deaf people! • All you have to do is to set the clock time and the alarm time, then put the object that can vibration under your soft bed. When the time have reach to the alarm time, it will vibrations really powerful that you can feels the vibration all over the bed! • Also, hard of hearing people can use them too. They can control the volume on the clock. When the time have reach to the alarm time, it will alarm really loud that hard of hearing can hear! • It costs about $49.95
Shake – Up with Sidekick and Strobe/Vibration • Do you worry about if there was a fire in your house and you couldn’t notice it? Guess what? There new kit for the deaf people! • You can add the vibration under your bed, soft chair or couch, anywhere to let you know that there is smoke or fire in your house. • Also, you can use the strobe light anywhere on the walls. When the alarm goes off, the strobe light will flash really bright so you can notice it easily. • It costs about $322.95
Videophone • There is now a new videophone for the deaf people to communicate with hearing people on the phone. • Deaf people can set up the videophone on the T.V. and use internet connection. Then, call someone. The relay will appear on the T.V. and all you have to do is use sign language to the T.V. The Videophone (VP) has a camera on it, so they can see you from the VP. The relay interpreter can talk into the phone everything exactly as it’s said. Then, the hearing people can answer back and the relay interpreter will listen and sign everything that the hearing people said. • Also, you can communicate with other deaf people with VP only. Other person must have their own VP. You and other deaf people can communicate only, no relay interpreter needed. • It’s free for all deaf and hard of hearing people but it costs for hearing people. Please call Harris Communications for pricing.
IDEA IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) states that the disabled are to have the same education as the non- disabled. The IDEA was originally enacted by Congress in 1975 . It incorporates FAPE (Free Appropriate Public Education) forstudents with disabilities.
ADA ADA (Americans with Disability Act) gives the disabled equal opportunity as the non-disabled for jobs, state and federal government, public transportation, public accommodations. ADA law was signed by President George H. W. Bush on July 26, 1990
For more Disability Law information: www.ada.gov/pubs/ada.htm http://www.vabir.com/ada.htm http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/policevideo/policebroadbandgallery.htm#Open%20Captions http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/cguide.htm
NADNational Association of the Deaf Legal Rights-NAD provides information to Deaf individuals about their lawful rights. • Captioning • Education • Government • Health Care • Housing • Public Faculties • Transportation Advocacy Issues-NAD helps the Deaf to understand how to advocate for themselves. • Air Travel • Assistive • Emergency • Gallaudet • Human Services • Judicial • Infant Screening • Law Enforcement • Past, Present • Relay • Telecommunication • Vote 2008
Info & FAQ’s-NAD gives the Deaf a list of Frequently Asked Questions and various information. • Advocacy • American Sign • Captioning • Communicate & Culture • Interpreting • Mental Health • Technology News Room-NAD gives the Deaf more information about: • Blog Central • Current New • Archived News • Theatre in the Sky • Celebrate ASL Inside NAD- describes activities and information about NAD. • Affiliates • Board of Directors • By laws • Conferences • Fulton lll • History • Interpreting • Law & Advocacy • Membership • Mission • Sections • Staff • State Associations • Youth www.nad.org
DHHC Deaf/Hard of Hearing Connection DHHC provides: • Guidance • Resources • An Advocate • Interpreter Services • Ask question & looking for answers Programs available: • Club “I Can” • Camp “I Can” • Education for families dealing with a child diagnosed with hearing loss • American Sign Languages Classes www.dhhc.org
MADHSMichigan Association For Deaf And Hard of Hearing MADHS is the place for: • Advocates • Services • Community Education • Youth • Resources • Technology www.madhs.org
DHHS Deaf & Hard of Hearing Services Services • Interpreter Referral Service • Advocacy and Community Services • American Sign Language Classes • Community Education • Lip-Reading Classes Advocacy Forms • Request for Sign Language Interpreter Service • Response to Directive to Address complaint Interpreter Referral Agency Form www.deafetc.org
credits Producers: Seth Tobias Laws and Audiogram James Tinder Technology and Causes Rachel Bylsma Communication and Resources Ronny Howard The Ear and Amplification Executive Editor: Mrs. Wiersma Special Effects: Seth Tobias Rachel Bylsma