Torah The Books of Moses © John Stevenson, 2013
Dr. John T. Stevenson http://JohnStevenson.net JohnStevenson@Bellsouth.net Jstevens@mail.tiu.edu
Course Objectives • Recognize the unity of the Torah--one book in five parts--and its major themes and purposes and its “spirit” or “heart.” • Explore the various genres within this book and how to understand them and how to relate the parts to the whole. • Observe New Testament connections to the major themes of the Torah/ Pentateuch.
From Paradise to Promised Land: An Introduction to the PentateuchbyT. D. Alexander Textbooks
The Gospel According to Moses: What My Jewish Friends Taught Me About JesusbyAthol Dickson Textbooks
Respond to the charge that the Mosaic Law is obsolete for today Applied Learning Paper Option #1 Option #2 Compare & contrast Jewish versus Christian readings of the Torah
Torah Pentateuch Greek: “Five-Part Book” Hebrew: “Law, Instruction”
Genesis Origins of God’s people from creation to Egypt Numbers Exodus God’s deliverance of Israel from Egypt and establishing His covenant Leviticus Laws of worship Wilderness wanderings Deuteronomy Gives the Law to a new generation with special emphasis to those entering the land
Deuteronomy Documentary Hypothesis Elohim Jean Astruc: Moses utilized two different source documents Jehovah Wilhelm de Wette: Deuteronomy penned by alternate author
Deuteronomy E-1 E-2 J – Jehovah E – Elohim D P – Deuteronomy – Priestly Documentary Hypothesis Elohim Herman Hulfeld: Jehovah Julius Wellhausen:
The Unity of the Torah • Genesis 50:24 - Exodus 1:7. • Exodus 40:34 - Leviticus1:2. • Leviticus 27:34 - Numbers 1:4. • Numbers 36:13 - Deuteronomy 1:5.
Genesis The Book of Beginnings
“These are the generations…” • Hebrew:tAdl.At hL,ae - Elleh toledoth • Ten sets • History of account follows: “These are the things that followed…” Adam Abraham Israel Genesis 2:4 – 11:26 Genesis 11:27 – 50:26 5 Toledoth from Adam to Abraham 5 Toledoth from Abraham to Israel
Genesis 12-50 Genesis 1-11 • People Predominant • Abraham • Isaac • Jacob • Joseph Events Predominant Creation Fall Flood Tower of Babel Race as a whole Family of Abraham Over 2000 years 250 years
Beginning & Ending • Genesis begins with God: “In the beginning God created…” • Genesis ends with a corpse: “…in a coffin in Egypt”
Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. • The “who” of creation. • The work of creation. • The “what” of creation.
Genesis 1:1-2 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was unformed and unfilled, and darkness was over the surface of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters.
Unformed Unfilled Day 4: Light-bearers (sun, moon, stars) Day 1: Light Day 5: Fish & birds to fill water & sky Day 2: Water & sky divided Day 6: Land animals & man Day 3: Dry land & vegetation Day 7: Sabbath Rest
Theories of Creation • Supernatural versus Evolutionary. • A Superficial Appearance of History. • The Gap Theory. • The Day/Age Theory. • The Non-Sequential Theory / Framework Theory. • The Literal Interpretation.
Genesis 1:26-27 The God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” And God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. (Genesis 1:26-27).
Genesis 1:28 God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living thing that moves on the earth.” • In the Image of God • Federal Headship • Stewardship and a basis for Ecology
The Earth as Temple The image of God
Genesis 2 Creation of the man and woman (no time element mentioned). Genesis 1 Man in his cosmic setting Man as central to God’s purpose The heavens and the earth are created in six days. Panorama of creation as a whole Detailed focus on one aspect of creation Centers on God creating the heavens and the earth Centers on man as the crowning act of God’s creation
Group Activity Compare & Contrast these three views: Resource View of the Natural World Romantic View of the Natural World Biblical View of the Natural World
Creation complete: Heavens & earth created; God finished His work (1-3) Man created: Formed from dust (4-9) Trees & Rivers in garden given names (9-14)
Creation complete: Heavens & earth created; God finished His work (1-3) Man created: Formed from dust (4-9) Trees & Rivers in garden given names (9-14) Man assigned task of guarding & keeping the garden (15) Forbidden fruit (16-17)
And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, "From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; 17 but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you shall surely die.“ (Genesis 2:16-17)
Creation complete: Heavens & earth created; God finished His work (1-3) Man created: Formed from dust (4-9) Trees & Rivers in garden given names (9-14) Man assigned task of guarding & keeping the garden (15) Forbidden fruit (16-17) Man in need of a helper: not good to be alone (18) Animals in garden are given names(19-20) Woman created: Formed from rib (21-24) Creation complete: Man & woman naked & unashamed in presence of God (25)
When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate. (Genesis 3:6)
What are the results from their actions of taking and eating the forbidden fruit?
And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, and you shall bruise him on the heel. (Genesis 3:15)
Seed of the Serpent Seed of the Woman Cain & Abel How is the Cain & Abel narrative related to the larger story of Genesis?
Seed of the Serpent Seed of the Woman Cain Abel And Adam had relations with his wife again; and she gave birth to a son, and named him Seth, for, she said, "God has appointed me another offspring in place of Abel; for Cain killed him." (Genesis 4:25). Lamech Literally, “another SEED”
Seed of the Serpent Seed of the Woman Cain Abel & Seth Enoch Lamech Noah Ham Shem Canaan Abraham
Noah Adam Ten Generations Ten Generations Noah Terah Three sons Three sons
Adam Noah 900 800 700 600 500 400 Enoch 300 200 100 Morris & Whitcomb, The Genesis Flood
Genesis 9:20-22 Then Noah began farming and planted a vineyard. 21 He drank of the wine and became drunk, and uncovered himself inside his tent. 22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside.
Genesis 9:23 But Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it upon both their shoulders and walked backward and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were turned away, so that they did not see their father's nakedness.
Genesis 9:24-25 25 So he said, “Cursed be Canaan; A servant of servants He shall be to his brothers.” When Noah awoke from his wine, he knew what his youngest son had done to him.
Genesis 9:26-27 He also said, “Blessed be the LORD, The God of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. 27 May God enlarge Japheth, And let him dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant.”
T.p.y: tp,y< Genesis 9:26-27 He also said, “Blessed be the LORD, The God of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. 27 May God enlarge Japheth, And let him dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant.”
Genesis 9:26-27 He also said, “Blessed be the LORD, The God of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. 27 May God enlarge Japheth, And let him dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant.” To whom does the pronoun refer?
27 May God enlarge Japheth, And let him dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant.” To whom does the pronoun refer?
Noah Adam Plants a Garden Eats the fruit of the tree Drinks of the fruit of the vine Results in recognizing his nakedness Results in lying naked in his tent Placed into a Garden Results in a curse Results in a lasting division of the seed Followed by a genealogy to demonstrate the division
Japheth Shem Ham
What is significant about this number? If we do not count the three sons of Noah, there are a total of 70 names in this table. …all the persons of the house of Jacob, who came to Egypt, were seventy (Genesis 46:27)
When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance,When He separated the sons of man,He set the boundaries of the peoplesAccording to the number of the sons of Israel.9 For the Lord’s portion is His people,Jacob is the allotment of His inheritance. (Deuteronomy 32:7-9).
Israel is a microcosm of the world Israel World