Chapter FourteenInstitutional Programs Faulkner University Criminal Justice Program Instructor: bill filmore http://filmore.net/faulknerclass/index.html
Learning Objectives • Describe how correctional programs help address the challenge of managing time in the correctional setting. • Describe the ways that security acts as a constraint on correctional programs offered in institutional settings. • Know the meaning of the “principle of least eligibility” and illustrate its importance. • Understand the importance of the classification process and how “objective classification” works
Learning Objectives • Describe the major kinds of institutional programs that are offered in correctional institutions. • Analyze recent developments in the field of correctional rehabilitation. • Describe the main types of correctional industries and define how each works. • Understand the current pressures facing correctional programming policies.
Learning Objective 1 • Learning objective 1: Describe how correctional programs help address the challenge of managing time in the correctional setting.
Managing Time • Mitigate the oppressiveness of time • Provide opportunities for prisoners to improve their lives • Keep prison time from becoming dead time • More programs offered, the less likely inmates’ boredom will translate into hostility toward the staff
Managing Time • Prison program: • Any formal, structured activity that takes prisoners out of their cells and sets them to instrumental tasks. • 5 types: • Rehabilitative • Medical service • Industrial • Daily facility maintenance • Recreational
Learning Objective 2 • Learning objective 2: Describe the ways that security acts as a constraint on correctional programs offered in institutional settings.
Constraints of Security • Whenever a program requires sharp tools, heavy security prevails. • Security requires tool counts, searches, and detailed accounting of materials. • Security requirements make maintenance and industrial programs inefficient.
Learning Objective 3 • Learning objective 3: Know the meaning of the “principle of least eligibility” and illustrate its importance.
Least Eligibility • The doctrine that prisoners ought to receive no goods or services in excess of those available to people who have lived within the law. • General public often quite hostile to create programming. • Public does not want to reward criminal activity. • Prison programs frequently represent weak versions of free-society program.
Learning Objective 4 • Learning objective 4: Understand the importance of the classification process and how “objective classification” works.
Classification • Process by which prisoners are assigned to types of custody and treatment. • Sentenced felon introduced to the new status of prison • Depersonalize the inductee • Serves as management tool to ensure inmates are assigned to units appropriate to their custody level: • Separated from those who might victimize them • Grouped with members of their work assignment
Classification • Objective classification: • Predictive model: • Designed to distinguish inmates with respect to risk of escape, potential misconduct, and future criminal behavior. • Statistical techniques • Equity-based model: • Use only a few explicitly defined legal variables reflecting current and previous criminal characteristics, not used: • Race • Employment • Education
Learning Objective 5 • Learning objective 5: Describe the major kinds of institutional programs that are offered in correctional institutions.
Institutional Programs • Rehabilitative programs: • Aim at reforming the offender’s behavior • Programs vary: • Psychological • Behavioral • Social • Educational • Vocational • Substance abuse • Sex offender • Religious programs
Institutional Programs • Prison industry: • Way to manage the restlessness and idleness of prison time • Viewed as part of the reformative process • Prison maintenance programs: • Typical prison must provide every major service available in a community: • Fire department • Electrical and plumbing • Janitorial maintenance • Mail delivery • Restaurant • Drug store
Institutional Programs • Maintenance programs cont.: • Constitute an elaborate pecking order of assignments • Choice jobs involve access to power • Essential to managing the prison: • Lower the cost of operations by eliminating the need to hire outside labor. • Job hierarchy provides rewards and punishments to enforce discipline.
Institutional Programs • Recreational: • Two primary functions: • Integral to prison social life • Can be rehabilitative in several ways: • Teach social skills as cooperation and teamwork • Provide a means for prisoners to grow in experience and enhance their self-image • Serve as a productive counterpoint to the general alienation of prison
Learning Objective 6 • Learning objective 6: Analyze recent developments in the field of correctional rehabilitation.
Correctional Rehabilitation • Martinson’s 1974 study indicating prison rehabilitation ineffective. • New vision: • Prison a place that should provide safe and secure custody while punishing offenders. • Criminogenic needs: • Needs than, when successfully addressed by treatment programs, result in lower rates of recidivism.
Correctional Rehabilitation • Six conditions identified by researchers under which treatment will be effective: • Directed toward high-risk clients. • Responds to offenders’ problems that caused the criminal behavior • Take into account offenders’ psychological maturity • Providers are allowed professional discretion on how to manage offenders’ progress in treatment • Are fully implemented as intended • Offenders receive follow-up support after completing the treatment programs
Correctional Rehabilitation • Cost-benefit ratio: • A summary measure of the value of a correctional program in saving money through preventing new crime.
Learning Objective 7 • Learning objective 7: Describe the main types of correctional industries and define how each works.
Correctional Industry • The contract labor, piece price, and lease systems: • A contractor provided raw materials and agreed to purchase goods made by prison inmates at a set price. • The public account system: • A prison bought machinery and raw materials with which inmates manufactured a salable product.
Correctional Industry • The state use system: • A labor system under which goods produced by prison industries are purchased by state institutions and agencies exclusively and never enter the free market. • The public works and ways system: • A labor system under which prison inmates work on public construction and maintenance projects.
Learning Objective 8 • Learning objective 8: Understand the current pressures facing correctional programming policies.
Current Pressures • Most rehabilitative programs have serious shortcomings and limited effectiveness. • Large number of inmates are not considered to need educational, vocational training, or drug/alcohol rehabilitation. • Services provided in prison settings are substantially less effective than same programs in community.
Learning Objectives • Discuss parole and explain how it operates today. • Be familiar with the origins and evolution of parole in the United States. • Discuss the different mechanisms that are used to release offenders from correctional facilities. • Explain how releasing authorities are organized. • Be familiar with the steps that are taken to ease the offender’s reentry into the community.
Learning Objective 1 • Learning objective 1: Discuss parole and explain how it operates today.
Parole • The conditional release of an inmate from incarceration, under supervision, after part of the prison sentence has been served. • Three concepts: • Grace or privilege • Contract of consent • Custody • Only felons released on parole • Only state and federal governments effect parole
Learning Objective 2 • Learning objective 2: Be familiar with the origins and evolution of parole in the United States.
Origin and Evolution • Parole in U.S. evolved during 19th century • Capt. Alexander Maconochie: • British colony administrator • Developed classification system by which prisoners could pass through: • Strict imprisonment • Labor on chain gangs • Freedom within an area • A ticket-of-leave or parole with conditional pardon • Full liberty
Origin and Evolution • 1870, National Prison Association incorporated principles into the Declaration of Principles • New York, indeterminate sentencing law, 1876: • Zebulon Brockway • Superintendent of Elmira Reformatory • Began to release prisoners on parole
Origin and Evolution • 1920 – 20 states had parole systems • 1925 – 46 states • 1942 – 48 states • During 1970’s parole criticized on several grounds: • Release was tied to treatment success • Parole boards abusing their discretion • Inmates being held in suspended animation
Learning Objective 3 • Learning objective 3: Discuss the different mechanisms that are used to release offenders from correctional facilities.
Release Mechanisms • Discretionary release • Mandatory release • Probation release • Other conditional release • Expiration release
Discretionary Release • The release of an inmate from prison to conditional supervision at the discretion of the parole board within the boundaries set by the sentence and the penal law. • Allows the parole board to assess prisoner’s readiness for release • Focuses on: • Nature of offense • Inmate’s behavior • Inmate’s participation in rehabilitative behavior
Mandatory Release • The required release on an inmate from incarceration to community supervision on the expiration of a certain period, as stipulated by a determinate-sentencing law or parole guidelines. • Matter of bookkeeping • Good time • Released conditionally
Probation Release • The release of an inmate from incarceration to probation supervision, as required by the sentencing judge. • Often tied to shock incarceration • Since 2000, use increased from 6 to 10%
Other Conditional Release • A probationary sentence used in some states to get around the rigidity of mandatory release by placing convicts in various community settings under supervision. • Furlough • Home supervision • Halfway houses • Emergency release
Expiration Release • The release of an inmate from incarceration without any further correctional supervision; the inmate cannot be returned to prison for any remaining portion of the sentence for the current offense. • 19% of prison releases
Learning Objective 4 • Learning objective 4: Explain how releasing authorities are organized.
Organization • Consolidated versus autonomous: • Inside or outside the department of corrections • Field services: • Argued that institutional staff and the parole board must be coordinated • Full time versus part time: • Full time: • Criminal justice professionals • Part time: • Thought to represent the community better
Organization • Appointment: • Appointed by governor or correctional authority
Learning Objective 5 • Learning objective 5: Be familiar with the steps that are taken to ease the offender’s reentry into the community.
Release • 2008, Second Chance Act • Reintegration model: • Gradually lowering level of custody • Prerelease counseling • Training programs • Transfer to housing unit, family readjustment training • Participating in most cases voluntary
Learning Objectives • Know the major characteristics of the postrelease function of the corrections system. • Define community supervision and revocation of community supervision. • Understand how community supervision is structured. • Describe residential programs and how they help parolees.
Learning Objectives • Identify the major problems parolees confront. • Understand why some parolees are viewed as dangerous and how society handles this problem. • Describe the effectiveness of postrelease supervision.