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A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training

A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training

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A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training

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  1. A Decision Matrix for Designing Staff Training Ronnie Detrich Wing Institute

  2. The Fundamental Challenge • All direct service organizations have many training responsibilities. • Legally mandated trainings • Job related training. • Training often takes time and resources away from providing service. • Inherent conflict for organizations.

  3. Fundamental Challenge • For direct service agencies there are constraints on the design of training: • Time • Costs • Logistics • How to resolve inherent conflict between providing services and providing training?

  4. The Training Problem • The most common method for training is group lecture. • Assumes having information results in skill acquisition. • Effective training is a set of instructional design questions. • What is to be taught? • How to deliver content to assure acquisition? • How to assess performance? • How to assure maintenance? • How to increase generalization?

  5. Decision Making Matrix • The goal of this paper is to provide a decision-making framework for designing training. • Address the major components of training • Addresses the advantages and disadvantages of each option.

  6. Decision Tree for Staff Training Type of Skill Knowing About Knowing How Delivery of Content Group Lecture Small Group Discussion Assigned Readings Self-Paced Instruction Delivery of Content Role Play Modeling On the job training Performance Appraisal Methods of Performance Appraisal Written tests Discussion Role Play Demos On job Demos Maintenance Methods for enhancing maintenance Train and hope Periodic Retraining Informal Obs and Discussion On Job Assessment & Feedback Summary

  7. Type of Skill to be Trained • Skinner (1974) distinguishes between two types of knowledge. • Knowing About: can describe variables that influence a phenomenon. • Example: Describe principles of reinforcement. • Knowing How: can perform effectively • Example: Shape the behavior of another. • One form of knowing does not imply the other.

  8. Decision Tree for Staff Training Type of Skill Knowing About Knowing How Delivery of Content Group Lecture Small Group Discussion Assigned Readings Self-Paced Instruction Delivery of Content Role Play Modeling On the job training Performance Appraisal Methods of Performance Appraisal Written tests Discussion Role Play Demos On job Demos Maintenance Methods for enhancing maintenance Train and hope Periodic Retraining Informal Obs and Discussion On Job Assessment & Feedback Summary

  9. Advantages Efficient use of trainer time Easy for trainer to schedule Facilitates acquisition of verbal knowledge Minimizes distractions during training Disadvantages Difficult to arrange for all staff to attend training and still provide service Length of session often contributes to inattentiveness Difficult to assure that staff actually know how to perform skill. Training outside of usual job context may result in poor generalization. Relevant stimuli may not be present. Knowing About:Delivery of Content: Group Lecture

  10. Advantages Training can be more individualized. Effective method for developing verbal skills. Less impact on service delivery. Disadvantages May be difficult for trainer to schedule if there is large number to be trained. Difficult to directly assess learner’s ability to perform task. Relevant stimuli may not be present. Training out of context may limit generalization. Knowing About:Delivery of Content: Small Group Discussion

  11. Advantages Requires very little trainer time. Minimal disruption of service delivery. Effective method for developing content knowledge. Disadvantages Difficult to determine if reading is occurring in timely manner. Difficult to assess learning other than content knowledge. Limited generalization. Knowing About:Delivery of Content: Assigned Readings

  12. Advantages Requires very little trainer time. Minimal disruption of service delivery. Effective method for developing content knowledge. Disadvantages Significant time and resources required to develop the materials. Difficult to assess learning other than content knowledge. Limited generalization. Requires resources to assure that pacing occurs. Knowing About:Delivery of Content: Self-Paced Instruction

  13. Decision Tree for Staff Training Type of Skill Knowing About Knowing How Delivery of Content Group Lecture Small Group Discussion Assigned Readings Self-Paced Instruction Delivery of Content Role Play Modeling On the job training Performance Appraisal Methods of Performance Appraisal Written tests Discussion Role Play Demos On job Demos Maintenance Methods for enhancing maintenance Train and hope Periodic Retraining Informal Obs and Discussion On Job Assessment & Feedback Summary

  14. Advantages Actual performance is practiced so acquisition may be facilitated. Instruction can be structured to assure success. Feedback can sharpen performance. Disadvantages Limited generalization to actual job setting. Requires more time from trainer. More difficult to schedule trainer time. Relevant antecedent and motivational variables may not be present during training. Role play may not capture all of the nuances of actual performance and context. Knowing How:Delivery of Content: Role Play

  15. Advantages Accurate performance is demonstrated. Disadvantages Does not assure acquisition. Limited generalization to actual job performance. Relevant antecedent and motivational variables may not be present. Nuances of performance may not be demonstrated. Knowing How:Delivery of Content: Modeling

  16. Advantages Relevant performance is coached under relevant conditions. Issues of generalization are minimized. Easy to assess adequacy of performance. Disadvantages Time consuming Training session can be disrupted. Difficulty scheduling trainer. May disrupt on-going work. Training may not be structured to assure success. Knowing How:Delivery of Content: On the Job Training

  17. Performance Appraisal • Delivery of content does not assure acquisition of skill. • It is necessary to directly assess skill acquisition. • Not all methods of performance appraisal are equal.

  18. Fundamentals of Performance Appraisal • Direct measures of relevant performance in relevant setting is best measure. • Minimizes inferences about ability to perform. • All other methods of performance appraisal require some degree of inference from assessment to actual performance.

  19. Decision Tree for Staff Training Type of Skill Knowing About Knowing How Delivery of Content Group Lecture Small Group Discussion Assigned Readings Self-Paced Instruction Delivery of Content Role Play Modeling On the job training Performance Appraisal Methods of Performance Appraisal Written tests Discussion Role Play Demos On job Demos Maintenance Methods for enhancing maintenance Train and hope Periodic Retraining Informal Obs and Discussion On Job Assessment & Feedback Summary

  20. Advantages No inference required if staff person can perform on the job. Expectations clearly communicated. Disadvantages Can disrupt on-going work. Difficult to schedule. Requires training coaches to discriminate effective performance from poor performance. Requires standardized checklist so any trained coach would obtain similar assessment results. Performance Appraisal: On the job Demonstrations

  21. Advantages Easy to administer and require little time and human resources. Best used to assess skills related to knowing about. Disadvantages Poor means for assessing skills related to knowing how. Open ended more difficult to score than multiple choice. Performance Appraisal: Written Assessments

  22. Advantages Best used to assess skills related to knowing about. Easy to administer. Disadvantages Difficult to assure standard assessment protocol across assessors. Poor means for assessing skills related to knowing how. Difficult to predict actual performance under relevant conditions. Performance Appraisal: Discussion

  23. Advantages Can be used to assess skills related to either knowing about or knowing how. Structured checklist allows for consistent scoring by trained coaches. Disadvantages Cannot assume that role play demonstrations will generalize to work setting. Done 1:1 so require more time. Necessary to train coaches to discriminate effective performance. Performance Appraisal: Role Play

  24. Maintenance • Acquisition of skill is initial goal of training but training is not complete without plan to assure maintenance. • Even with effective training, performance will drift if there is not some plan to assure maintenance. • Maintenance generally receives very little attention in staff training.

  25. Decision Tree for Staff Training Type of Skill Knowing About Knowing How Delivery of Content Group Lecture Small Group Discussion Assigned Readings Self-Paced Instruction Delivery of Content Role Play Modeling On the job training Performance Appraisal Methods of Performance Appraisal Written tests Discussion Role Play Demos On job Demos Maintenance Methods for enhancing maintenance Train and hope Periodic Retraining Informal Obs and Discussion On Job Assessment & Feedback Summary

  26. Advantage Cheap and easy Disadvantage Does not assure maintenance Methods for Enhancing Maintenance:Train and hope

  27. Advantage Does not consume valuable human resources between trainings. Assures that old and new staff all receive the same content of training. Disadvantage Trainings may be a year or more apart Does not assure maintenance between training sessions Difficulties with scheduling Methods for Enhancing Maintenance:Periodic Retraining

  28. Advantage Tends to occur in context of other job functions so additional time is minimal. Disadvantage Does not measure level of performance so there is no information about maintenance effects. Neither the observation or feedback is systematic. Methods for Enhancing Maintenance:Informal Observation and Discussion

  29. Advantage Formal structured observation and feedback increases probability of detecting “drift” and correcting. Measures same behavior as performance appraisal from initial training. Proactive Disadvantage Difficult to schedule into work routine. Methods for Enhancing Maintenance:On the Job Demonstrations and Feedback

  30. Summary • Staff training is a part of system to assure effective staff performance. • Effective staff training must also include maintenance plan. • Designing training is series of decisions • All methods have advantages and disadvantages. • Training has not occurred until trainees can perform the relevant skill in the relevant settings.

  31. Decision Tree for Staff Training Type of Skill Knowing About Knowing How Delivery of Content Group Lecture Small Group Discussion Assigned Readings Self-Paced Instruction Delivery of Content Role Play Modeling On the job training Performance Appraisal Methods of Performance Appraisal Written tests Discussion Role Play Demos On job Demos Maintenance Methods for enhancing maintenance Train and hope Periodic Retraining Informal Obs and Discussion On Job Assessment & Feedback Summary