Classification • Once there was a man named Aristotle…
He was a very smart man who like orderly things (sometimes scientists are like that.)
The world, however, was not orderly. All these random living things…it was a mess! • So…he decided to do something about it.
Then, he had a stroke of genius. He got even more specific and grouped all plants into…
Animals were split into Animals of the air…
Notice any problems? • What about frogs, both land and water?
Enter Carolus Linneaus, 2000 years later. He liked things orderly, also. Invented the modern classification system
He wrote a book and decided to group living things in a different way. He grouped living things based on their STRUCTURAL SIMILARITIES.
He grouped similar groups into larger groups, until he had seven groupings.
The Seven Taxons(Groupings): • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species
Classification of Humans • Kingdom: animal • Phylum: chordate • Class: mammal • Order: primate • Family: hominid • Genus: Homo • Species: sapien
Taxonomy(Systematics) – science of grouping and naming things • Scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universally accepted name • Why? By using a scientific name, scientists can be sure everyone is discussing the same organism • Lepus arcticus
How specific does it go? • Linneaus’ smallest grouping was called the species-reproduce with each other.
Genus- a group of similar species • He grouped similar species into a larger grouping called genus.
Binomial Nomenclature • GENUS + SPECIES = Scientific name! • Examples: • Homo sapien • Acer rubrum • Drosophilia melanogaster • Felis concolor • Felis domesticus
Prokaryotes- simple cells Eubacteria- “normal” bacteria found everywhere Archaebacteria- unusual bacteria found in hot springs, brine pools and mud Eukaryotes- complex cells with nucleii Fungus- mold, mushrooms, etc. decomposers Protists- microscopic “left over” group Plants- make food Animals- consumers of food Today’s Modern Kingdoms 2 1
Classification • Cladogram (Phylogenetic tree)- diagram showing the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.