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Melda N. Yildiz, Ed. D. Kean University myildiz@kean

Melda N. Yildiz, Ed. D. Kean University myildiz@kean

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Melda N. Yildiz, Ed. D. Kean University myildiz@kean

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  1. Lesson Planning 101 How to write clear Objectives Melda N. Yildiz, Ed. D. Kean University myildiz@kean.edu Kean University

  2. There are three essential elements of a lesson plan: • Objectives--what students will be able to do as a result of the lesson • Procedures--what the teacher will do to get the students there • Evaluation opportunities--what the teacher can do to see if the lesson was taught effectively:  watching students work, assigning application activities, getting feedback, etc. Additionally, many lesson plans also include: • Materials needed for the class period and any special equipment • Time estimates, and of course • Differentiations. Kean University

  3. Writing Objectives • Any good lesson starts with strong objectives. • A good objective is specific. • A good objective targets an appropriate level of learning by using a tool like Bloom’s Taxonomy. This categorization of educational objectives has six orders ranging from the least difficult, most superficial learning up to that of the deepest level. • A good objective is measurable. You can tell when it is completed. • A good objective is usually time-bound. • A good objective will challenge students on one hand, but be within their reach on the other. • A good objective is part of a larger scheme of objectives designed to take a student from entry to mastery. Kean University

  4. Bloom's Taxonomy Kean University

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  11. Complete instructional objectives should be: • Observable. Lesson writers differ in the level of specificity they seek in describing student learning outcomes. • Consider the following objectives: 1. Students will be able to understand the difference between urban and rural communities. 2. Students will be able to list in their journals two differences between urban and rural communities.  Kean University

  12. The first objective is very general and it does not say how students might show, in any observable way, their understanding. • What does it mean to "understand" the concept of urban community? • This type of objective does not provide adequate information to the teacher about what the student will be able to do after completing the lesson, nor does it guide the teacher's evaluation of whether students have achieved the objective. • The second objective, however, more clearly identifies the expected student behavior.  Kean University

  13. Four Criteria for Completeness in Instructional Objectives • The specific performance or action required to demonstrate successful accomplishment of the instructional objective (e.g., to write, to name, to compare and contrast, to debate, to decide, etc.) • The learning outcome or product by which successful accomplishment of the objective can be determined (e.g., a statement, an essay, a poster, a journal entry, etc.) • The conditions or constraints under which the behavior is to be performed  (e.g., during a cooperative activity, after reading the story_______, given a diagram . . . ) • The criterion, standard, or learned capability used to determine successful performance or achievement of the instructional objective. (e.g., correct to the nearest mile, four out of five correct, list three examples, state two differences, etc.) Kean University

  14. 1. Students will be able to understand the difference between urban and rural communities.  • 2. Students will be able to list in their journals differences between urban and rural communities.  OBJECTIVE= SWAT+ specific performance + learning outcome + conditions or constraints + criterion, standard. 3. Students will be able to list in their journalsat the end of the lessontwo differences between urban and rural communities.  Students will be able to create digital video narratives at the end of the week covering 3 out of 5 suggested elements (i.e. pictures, video, audio, subtitle, video transitions) . Kean University

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  16. Common Lesson Plan Modelsadapted from Writing Lesson Plans from the Huntington College Education Department • Madeline Hunter's (Seven Steps)\ • direct instruction method as well as the behaviorist school of educational practice. The seven steps fall under four categories as follows: • Getting Students Ready to Learn1. Review2. Anticipatory Set - focus attention, gain interest - the "hook", connect new to known3. Stating the objective • Instruction4. Input and modeling • Checking for Understanding5. Check for understanding6. Guided practice - provide feedback without grading • Independent Practice7. Independent practice - usually for a graded assignment Kean University

  17. Robert Gagne, Educational psychologist • 9 instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes that can be used to support learning. They are often used as a framework for instructional development when the acquisition of intellectual skills is the goal of instruction. • Gaining attention • Informing learners of the objective • Stimulating recall of prior learning • Presenting the stimulus (content) • Providing learning guidance (telling students the best way to learn the material you are presenting) • Eliciting performance (opportunities to practice)  • Providing feedback (information about how to improve) • Assessing performance (exam, tests, quizzes, papers) • Enhancing retention and transfer (activities to help students remember and to extend the learning, transfer it to other scenarios) Kean University

  18. Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner's 8 Ways of Knowing) • Verbal • Mathematical • Spatial • Musical • Kinesthetic • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Natural Kean University

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  20. Instructional Scaffolding (Jerome Bruner; Langer & Applebee) • Ownership--wish to learn • Appropriateness--right level • Support--structured guidance • Collaboration--coaching • Internalization--independent practice Kean University

  21. The six steps of the ASSURE Model (Azia, 2003 & Shepard, n.d.) • Analyze Learners: The first step in the ASSURE process is to know and understand the target audience. It is important to know the students' general characteristics (e.g. grade, age ethic group, gender, and socioeconomic level), learning styles (e.g. verbal, visual, tactual) and entry competencies (e.g. prior knowledge, skills, attitudes). • State Objectives: Once you know the learners, the next step is to state the objectives. Establishing direct learning outcomes will specify what the learners will gain from the lesson and the criteria for technology integration. • Select Methods, Media, and Materials after you have knowledge of your learners and stated objectives; the next step is to select the instructional method, media and materials that will be appropriate for the teaching and learning environment. Technology integration is determined in the selection of methods, media, and materials. • Utilize Media and Materials: Once the methods, media, and materials have been chosen, you are ready to implement them into the lesson. • Require Learner Participation: Provide opportunities for students to participate and reflect during the learning process. • Evaluate and Revise: You should reflect upon the lesson and revise where needed. Obtain input from the learners through group discussion, exit interviews, assessments, and other types of student feedback. Kean University

  22. 5 E's of Constructivism Constructivism is a theory of learning stating that learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. It is a very open type of planning. Faculty design instruction around a learning objective, gather resources, and provide students with an opportunity to explore, build, and demonstrate their learning. It shifts the learning environment from one which is very instructor-centered to one that is very learner-centered. • Engage - students encounter the material, define their questions, lay the groundwork for their tasks, make connections from new to known, identify relevance • Explore - students directly involved with material, inquiry drives the process, teamwork is used to share and build knowledge base • Explain - learner explains the discoveries, processes, and concepts, that have been learned through written, verbal or creative projects. Instructor supplies resources, feedback, vocabulary, and clarifies misconceptions • Elaborate - learners expand on their knowledge, connect it to similar concepts, apply it to other situations - can lead to new inquiry • Evaluate - on-going process by both instructor and learner to check for understanding. Rubrics, checklists, teacher interviews, portfolios, problem-based learning outputs, and embedded assessments. Results are used to evaluate and modify further instructional needs. Kean University

  23. Other FormatsDiscovery Lesson (eg. Lab) • Equipment • Set the stage • Don't state objectives yet • Give instructions • Check for understanding • Guided practice (lab) • Discussion, regrouping • Statement of objectives • Independent practice (e.g. lab journal) • Assessment Kean University

  24. Group Work (eg. Cooperative Learning) • Equipment • Set the stage • State objectives • Give instructions • Check for understanding • Group work • Guided practice • Discussion • Regrouping • Summary • Assessment Kean University

  25. MiniCycles (eg. vocabulary lesson) • Equipment • Set the stage • State objective • Cycles: • - Instruction • - Check for understanding • - Guided practice • - Instruction • - Check for understanding • - Guided practice , etc. • Independent practice • Assessment Kean University

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  27. Evaluation • Rubristar • http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php • My rubric for lesson plans • http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php?screen=ShowRubric&module=Rubistar&rubric_id=1003578& Kean University

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  29. http://connect.barry.edu/ect653/rubrics/webeval.htm Kean University

  30. WebQuesthttp://webquest.sdsu.edu/ Kean University

  31. Lesson Plans on the Web • Ideas for web-based lessons from the Public Broadcasting System web sitehttp://www.pbs.org/teachersource/teachtech/ideaswebbased.shtm • Art education activities from the Kennedy Center http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/cs.html • Lesson plans available from the Apple Computer, Inc. Apple Learning Exchange http://ali.apple.com/ • A searchable database of lesson plans submitted by teachers to the Encarta web site http://encarta.msn.com/ • Astronomy lesson plans from the NASA Goddard Space Center http://education.nasa.gov/educators.html Kean University

  32. Lesson plans, activities, and resources from the national Park Service to support education in geology, paleontology, prairie resources, and wildlifehttp://www1.nature.nps.gov/edures/ • Free bank of lesson activities and other resources from the U. S. Department of Educationhttp://www.ed.gov/free/subject.html • Teaching modules, classroom activities, and on-going events from the United Nations to help teach global issues: Human Rights, Health, Land Mines, Environment, Women, Poverty. http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/ Kean University

  33. Lesson plans and other teaching resources on a variety of topics from the Smithsonian Museumhttp://educate.si.edu/resources/resourcedir.html • Lesson ideas and opportunities available from the New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/learning/ • Consortium to point the way to materials from federal, state, university, and other siteshttp://www.thegateway.org/index.html • Lesson plans and other resources for the middle school level http://www.middleschool.net/ Kean University

  34. Online Learning Projects and Sites to Help with Collaboration Among Schools • The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge http://www.thinkquest.org • The Kidlink Network to support e-mail exchanges among students http://www.kidlink.org/ • Intercultural E-Mail Classroom Connections, a free service to help teachers link with partners in other countries and cultures for e-mail project exchangeshttp://www.stolaf.edu/network/iecc/ • The Global SchoolNet Foundation, a site of examples of past collaborative projects and information on how to join current ones http://www.gsn.org • Live interactive expeditions to real places around the world that students may "join" online http://www.globalearn.org/ Kean University

  35. Examples from the University of Illinois of real Internet projects of teachers and students, and the findings of researchers who study them http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/ • Live interactive expeditions to real places around the world that students may "join" online http://www.globalearn.org/ • Site to help K12 educators learn how to set up their own Internet servers, link K12 educators and students at various sites, and help them find and use K12 web resourceshttp://web66.umn.edu/ • Blue Web'N Library of Learning SitesThis popular site includes a content table listing web-based tutorials, activities and projects, along with lesson plans and suggested Internet resources for each subject area.http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/bluewebn/ Kean University

  36. The Busy Teachers' WebSite K-12Arranged by subject categories, this site provides links to selected Internet sites as well as suggestions for lesson plans and classroom activities.http://www.ceismc.gatech.edu/busyt/ • Classroom Connect Lesson PlansA web site for K-12 teachers and students, including Connected Teacher Lesson Plans and A+ Web Links by subject.http://www.connectedteacher.com/lessonplans/lessonplans.asp • WebQuest Matrix of ExamplesThe famous list of inquiry-oriented Internet activities on many subjects, pioneered by Bernie Dodge at San Diego State University. WebQuests are listed by grade level, skills taught, and subject. http://edweb.sdsu.edu/webquest/matrix.html Kean University

  37. The Gateway to Educational MaterialsThis search engine for lesson plans allows you to select a grade level and search the full text of lessons for that age group. A "search by subject" and a "browse" feature. http://www.thegateway.org/ • Lesson Plans and Teaching ActivitiesA webliography of ideas for K-12 activities in many subjects, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. http://libweb.uncc.edu/cimc/ebsscmc/lessonplans.htm • Microsoft ENCARTA Lesson Collection. Choose a subject area from the list and view links to lessons on various topics for grades K-12. Each lesson includes objectives, procedure, and motivation. http://www.encarta.msn.com/schoolhouse/default.asp Kean University

  38. Discovery Channel SchoolIncluding the award-winning subject guide by Kathy Schrock, with lots of links to subject and administrative topics of interest to teachers and librarians http://school.discovery.com/ • EDSITEment From the National Endowment for the Humanities, this site contains not only great lesson plans for a variety of subjects in the humanities, but suggestions for important humanities websites and educational news.http://edsitement.neh.gov Kean University

  39. Resources • http://ukean.wikispaces.com/LessonPlanning Kean University