Section 1The Jim Crow Era Section 2The Progressive Movement Section 3African Americans Move West Section 4Black Achievements After Reconstruction The Separation of the Races
Section 1: The Jim Crow Era Main Idea By 1900 many of the gains made by African Americans during Reconstruction had been taken away, and relations between blacks and whites had grown strained. • Reading Focus • What rights did black citizens lose after the end of Reconstruction? • What court cases helped legalize segregation in the United States? • What barriers were raised to keep African Americans from voting? • What caused a rise in racial violence in the 1900s?
Building Background The period of Reconstruction had been an effort to heal the United States after years of conflict and war. As part of the healing, many Americans wanted to improve the lives of African Americans and protect their rights. These efforts were somewhat successful during Reconstruction, but after the period ended discrimination actually increased.
Three different approaches to African American equality Most African Americans favored social integration Sought to place blacks on an equal basis with whites Level social, economic, and political barriers Create equal opportunity among people of all races Many blacks and some whites called for racial separation Respectful division of the races into their own communities Blacks would develop independent social, educational, and economic institutions Many whites looked for ways to keep races separate and unequal through voluntary segregation Called for separation of the races in daily life; developed into new era of discrimination called the Jim Crow era that lasted nearly 100 years African Americans Lose Ground
The Rise of Jim Crow • Jim Crow • Name originally from song sung by black children at play • Took on different meaning in 1820s with song-and-dance routine by blackface performer • Soon became a racial slur used to demean blacks • By late 1800s referred to laws and customs to oppress, discriminate against blacks, especially in the South
Redeemer governments • 1870s white Democrats who favored segregation began to gain power in South • Were elected to state governments; replacing African American politicians elected during Reconstruction • Southerners referred to new governments as Redeemer governments • Thought the new leaders would “redeem” the South by reversing Reconstruction policies • Firm believers in white supremacy, leaders wanted to limit the power of black citizens
Jim Crow laws • Redeemer lawmakers passed laws to establish separate facilities for black people; laws became known as Jim Crow laws • Jim Crow laws spread across South from 1890 to 1910 • Throughout South blacks forced to ride in separate railway cars, eat in separate restaurants, attend separate schools, and live in separate neighborhoods • In the North, laws less widespread; African Americans still dealt with prejudice; blacks denied admittance to hotels, restaurants, and theaters • Blacks also faced prejudice at West Point; in 1870 malicious white cadets provoked J. W. Smith into striking a white cadet; the first black cadet at West Point was expelled as result
Reading Check Sequence What events led to the passing of Jim Crow laws in the South? Answer(s): Reconstruction ended; Democrats returned to power in the South; Democratic lawmakers passed laws restricting black rights.
Segregation is Legalized Southern states began writing new constitutions that incorporated Jim Crow principles. States used federal court rulings to support segregation. • The Slaughterhouse Cases • 1873 three cases regarding the meatpacking industry in New Orleans brought before the Supreme Court • Years before Louisiana decided to create a new corporation to run all slaughterhouses in New Orleans • Slaughterhouse owners said it was an unlawful monopoly that threatened their livelihood • Case at Supreme Court • Slaughterhouse owners argued Louisiana law violated 14th amendment rights; no state could impede the rights and privileges of its citizens • Court did not agree; 14th only protected rights of national citizenship—not rights granted by states • Cases later used to justify Jim Crow laws and creation of separate facilities in states
1892 another case about discrimination Louisiana law prohibited blacks and whites from riding in the same railroad car; Homer Plessy, who was one-eighth black, challenged the law when he was arrested for riding in a white car Separate but equal Louisiana courts determined separate facilities did not demean blacks, as long as those facilities were equal; Plessy appealed In landmark case Plessy v. Fergusonthe Supreme Court sided with the Louisiana court; agreed segregation was lawful as long as blacks and whites had access to equal facilities John Marshall Harlan only justice to disagree; arguing the decision would only worsen racial tension; “separate but equal” doctrine used to keep blacks in the position of second-class citizens Facilities available to blacks were seldom equal to those used by whites Plessy v. Ferguson
Reading Check Describe What were the results of the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson? Answer(s): Separate and supposedly equal facilities were accepted for blacks and whites.
Barriers to Voting Voting rights for African Americans a major concern for white politicians. Some whites wanted to control black vote; others wanted to deny it. • Black Disfranchisement • New black codes included unfair voting laws; adding literacy tests to their voting restrictions • Many blacks had received no education; could not pass tests • States voting fee called a poll tax • Poor and illiterate whites were exempted by grandfather clause; if grandfather eligible to vote, then that person could vote as well • Other Methods • Other states used a so-called clause of understanding; waived literacy requirements if could explain clause • Some southern states banned blacks form taking part in primary elections • Black voters had little say in who was elected to office in the South • Once again unable to vote; with little say in the government
The Populist Movement • Farm movement • Members of Populist movement supported voting rights for blacks • Started in 1880s to support and protect farmers • In 1892 Populists officially banded together as new political party • To gain support for their programs Populist leaders turned to black voters • Populists worked on behalf of black citizens trying to win back lost voting rights • Candidates • Blacks voted for Populist candidates; angered conservative white Democrats • Fearing increased political power of black voters, conservative leaders tried to find new ways to prevent African Americans citizens from voting • A few black politicians elected in the South, with support from Populists • George Henry White from North Carolina only black representative in U.S. Congress when elected
Reading Check Identify What were two common practices used to keep African Americans from voting? Answer(s): Literacy tests, poll taxes, clauses of understanding, banning from primaries
Racial Violence on the Rise Life under Jim Crow was dangerous. Jim Crow laws and customs were backed with threats of violence. • Lynching • Most common forms of racial violence in late 1800s—lynchings, murders of individuals without a trial • Nearly 900 blacks lynched from 1882 to 1892; many committed no crime • Black journalist Ida Wells- Barnett fought to expose and end the practice • Race Riots • Number of race riots increased; in cities large numbers of whites took to the streets to punish blacks accused of crimes • 1st major riot in Wilmington, NC in 1898, another in Atlanta, GA in 1906 • Lynchings and race riots more common in the South; both occurred in the North as well
Jim Crow era imagery is shown in this French artist’s conception of the 1906 race riot in Atlanta, Georgia.
Reading Check Analyze What was the cause of most lynchings and race riots? Answer(s): general dislike of African Americans and perceived slights toward whites
Section 2: The Progressive Movement Main Idea Countless individuals and groups worked tirelessly to improve the lives and situations of African Americans during the late 1800s and early 1900s. • Reading Focus • What was the Progressive movement, and what did Progressives want to achieve? • Why did some black activists protest the Progressives? • What goals were black Progressive organizations founded to achieve?
Building Background By 1900 African Americans had seen the denial of their political rights. Even worse, they had witnessed the destruction of basic human rights. But African Americans were not alone in noticing the hardships they faced. At the beginning of the century, reformers from all over the country—mostly white members of the middle class—banded together to fight injustice in society.
Reform movement of the late 1800s and early 1900s Called the Progressive movement; key issues were terrible poverty, unfair business practices, the lack of rights for women, and racial discrimination Progressives published photos of horrible living conditions faced by the urban poor; wrote moving pieces about the unfair treatment of black Americans Many black activists among Progressives; heart of message was idea of self-reliance, that blacks should not have to depend on anyone else to succeed To attain self-reliance, black people needed the same educational and economic opportunities that whites enjoyed Black Self-Reliance
Examples of Black Progressives • Black Progressives included both men and women; most prominent supporters of African American rights were two black women • Ida Wells-Barnett, an outspoken critic of lynching she also wrote passionately for increased rights for blacks and women • Mary Church Terrell traveled around the country calling for the same rights • Booker T. Washington • Vocal black Progressive, Booker T. Washington; had been born a slave in 1856 in Virginia to a black mother and a white father • His dream was to learn to read and write; a black school finally opened • At the age of 16, he went to the Hampton Institute in Virginia; after graduation, Washington got a job as a teacher
Washington’s Speech • On September 18, 1895, Washington made a speech in Atlanta; mesmerizing his audience • “Learn a trade” enthusiastic advice to black citizens • If black people efficient workers, would be granted rights as citizens; philosophy known as vocational education • His Atlanta Compromise declared blacks and whites had to work together to achieve racial equality; tolerance could not be forced Booker T. Washington
Tuskegee Institute • Washington felt he could help black people succeed by teaching them; accepted the chance to open the Tuskegee Institute in 1881 • At that time Tuskegee was nothing more than a rundown old plantation and a barn; by his death in 1915, the institute had an annual endowment in excess of $2 million • The Tuskegee Institute founded to train teachers and to teach poor blacks trades so they could succeed; school was successful • Eventually focus changed from vocational training to a more traditional college curriculum; began offering college degrees • Now called Tuskegee University, the school today has an enrollment of more than 3,000
Black Education Movement • Many benefactors from around the country began to give money to support black schools • Rich northern business owners gave more than $2 million to open public schools in the South • Oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller established schools in the South open to all students, black or white; other philanthropists paid to open schools only open to black students • Anna Jeanes, the daughter of a Philadelphia merchant; in the early 1900s donated $1 million to black schools in the South • Julius Rosenwald established a fund dedicated to building and improving rural black schools • Many wealthy individuals worked to help black students gain new opportunities and improve their lives
Reading Check Explain What role did education play in Booker T. Washington’s vision of African American success? Answer(s): He thought education was the key to better jobs, better lives, and better relations between the races.
The Black Protest Movement Many felt black Americans should fight bitterly against discrimination and segregation, protest the status quo and work for a positive change in society. • W. E. B. Du Bois • One of the leaders of the Black Protest movement; a brilliant economics professor at Atlanta University • Du Bois feared if blacks just waited to gain full equality they would be headed back to slavery • Du Bois was born to free parents in 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. • Scholarly Brilliance • At early age won a scholarship to Fisk University; earned a Ph.D. from Harvard University, the first black student ever to do so • Du Bois gained fame as a scholar; 1899 published The Philadelphia Negro, the first in-depth sociological examination of African Americans • In 1903 penned The Souls of Black Folk
Like Booker T. Washington, Du Bois wanted better lives for African Americans; the two men differed on how to achieve that dream Washington focused on getting the black working class what it needed to survive Du Bois believed the black middle class was the only group with the resources, both material and mental, to pull the working class out of poverty Du Bois dubbed those young black people with the most potential for leadership the Talented Tenth Du Bois thought that the skills and talents of the Tenth could pull all black citizens up from hardship Washington and Du Bois
The Niagara Movement Du Bois set out to change the problems in society. Black Americans should have three things: the right to vote, civic equality, and the education of youth according to their ability. • Fort Erie Meeting • July 11, 1905, Du Bois and 29 others met in Canada • Du Bois’s originally wanted to hold the meeting in Buffalo; the hotel refused to rent rooms to African Americans • These men were determined to create an organization which would aggressively push for full civil rights for all African Americans • Incorporation • The group incorporated itself as the Niagara Movement • Met the following year at Harpers Ferry; in 1907, met in the old abolitionist stronghold of Faneuil Hall in Boston • In 1908 after a major race riot in Springfield, Illinois, liberal whites took up the civil rights banner; joining with their black counterparts
Reading Check Identify What was the goal of the Niagara Movement? Answer(s): The movement wanted to secure black rights, including the right to vote, civic equality, and education.
Progressive Organizations • Economic Organizations • Booker T. Washington organized first successful national black business association of the early twentieth century • At the 1900 meeting, he urged delegates to start as many businesses as possible • 1907 the National Negro Business League had 320 branches • Between 1906 and 1910, three different organizations were formed in NYC to press for economic advancement for blacks • Joining Forces • By 1911 three organizations centralized their efforts; new organization called the National League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes • It exists today as the National Urban League; devoting itself to helping African Americans in cities make progress in all walks of life • Has helped newly arrived southern blacks adjust to the North; made training programs to help people progress beyond unskilled jobs
The NAACP On February 12, 1909, the 100th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln’s birth, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was born. • NAACP • W. E. B. Du Bois and the Niagara Movement joined with white reformers to found the NAACP • Among the white founders were Mary White Ovington and Oswald Garrison Villard • In May 1910 Du Bois created a magazine so the leaders of the new organization could share their views • The Crisis • The magazine was called The Crisis; by 1920 it was selling as many as 100,000 copies a month • Du Bois explained, “its editorial page will stand for the rights of men, irrespective of color or race” • NAACP attorneys began waging the battle against injustice—a battle that continues today
The lawyers of the NAACP won three landmark cases in the NAACP’s first 15 years of existence. • Guinn v. United States (1915), in which the Supreme Court declared the “grandfather clauses” in Oklahoma to be illegal • Buchanan v. Warley (1917), in which a Louisville, Kentucky, law that had forced black people to live only in certain sections of town was declared unconstitutional • Moore v. Dempsey (1923), in which 5 black men convicted of murder in Arkansas who protested that their rights had been violated due to public pressure on the judge and jury were given a new trial These precedent setting cases allowed attorneys in other parts of the country to argue the rights of African Americans more successfully.
Labor and Political Organizations • Both the National Urban League and the NAACP attracted black professionals and activists as members • To help get what they needed black farmers and workers formed unions, business organizations, and banks • Efforts to integrate unions failed and racial separation remained the order of the day; in 1866 the National Labor Union was formed • The NLU made overtures toward black workers about joining; but old attitudes hard to change and the union accepted black members only in separate local chapters • Isaac Myers then organized the Colored National Labor Union in 1869; but within three years the CNLU had virtually disappeared
Labor and Political Organizations • Knights of Labor • One of two major unions formed in the 1880s; Knights of Labor agreed to welcome black workers • Membership dropped sharply after unpopular strikes; by 1890s union declined • AFL • With American Federation of Labor (AFL) few blacks actually allowed to join; many joined affiliated unions • Congress of Industrial Organizations first major integrated union • Politics • Black Americans began to rethink their political affiliations; most still sided with the Republican Party • Some black citizens felt Republicans taking their support for granted; left Republicans for Democrats • Knights of Labor • Blacks in northern cities could get concessions in exchange for support of Democrats • Black Democrats formed National Independent Political League to encourage Democratic voting
Reading Check Identify Cause What was the purpose of the creation of organizations such as the NAACP and the National Urban League? Answer(s): The organizations were founded to fight for and protect African American rights.
Section 3: African Americans Move West Main Idea Beginning in the 1870s thousands of African Americans moved west to escape discrimination and to find new opportunities. • Reading Focus • Why did many black southerners move west in the 1870s and 1880s? • What were some achievements of black cowhands in the Old West? • Who were the Buffalo soldiers, and for what were they known?
Building Background In the mid-1800s Congress passed two bills that ended up creating new opportunities for African Americans. Called the Homestead Act and the Morrill Act, these bills opened up the American West for settlement. As a result of these two bills, people from all over the country began to move westward in search of new lives. Among those who moved were thousands of African Americans, mostly from the South, who saw the West as a land of new possibilities.
The Move West “The whole South—every single state in the South—had got into the hands of the very men that held us as slaves . . . We said there was no hope for us and we better go.” • The Exodusters • 1879 more than 15,000 black southerners headed to Kansas • Led by a former slave named Benjamin “Pap” Singleton; mass migration was known as the Exodus of 1879 • Those who took part in the exodus called Exodusters • Reasons for Move • Singleton believed blacks in the South would eventually gain freedom and equality • Was convinced it would not occur during his lifetime; determined to find a place where he could enjoy his life • “Well, my people, for the want of land—we needed land for our children…”
African Americans created their own communities in Kansas Singleton responsible for two settlements before the exodus; people who moved to the Singleton colonies had little money and few possessions First colony failed, after rich deposits of lead were discovered in the area and real estate prices skyrocketed Second colony most people able to find work; community thrived Several more African American communities established with arrival of Exodusters; about 20 black towns founded in the 1870s and 1880s Largest and most successful—Nicodemus, Kansas; founded in 1877 by six black and two white settlers; had 500 people by 1880 Crop failures and hostility from nearby towns took toll; by 1910 only 200 people in what was the only all-black town in Kansas Black Communities in the West
Reading Check Explain Why did many African Americans move west in the late 1800s? Answer(s): They wanted to escape the discrimination they faced in the South and hoped to find happiness in the West.
Blacks in the Old West • Historians estimate black cowboys represented 25% of this country’s cowhands around the turn of the century • Most of the Old West’s black cowboys remain nameless; they lived undocumented solitary lives • Information about a few has survived • Nat Love • One of best-known black cowboys of 1880s; born a slave in Tennessee in 1854, ventured west in 1869 • Love taught himself to ride wild horses and shoot with deadly accuracy; earned a reputation as the champion rider in the West
Bill Pickett • Inventor of the modern rodeo sport of steer wrestling • Born in southern Texas around 1870; most famous for subduing bulls using a trick he learned by watching herd dogs • To stop an angry bull, Pickett would sink his teeth into the animal’s tender upper lip • Black Women in the West • Mary Fields ran stagecoach line through Montana Territory; for more than eight years Fields responsible for getting the mail through the Montana wilderness • Artist Leonora Russell was another noted black westerner