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## Sociological Research Methods

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**Sociological Research Methods**Review #2**14 Review Questions**• Name three types of research • Quantitative (Deductive) • Qualitative (Inductive) • Descriptive • Name the four categories of research • Descriptive • Exploratory • Explanatory • Evaluative • Name at least two methods used to collect data • Surveys • Interviews • Participant Observation • What are the two types of samples? • Non-probability (four types) • Availability • Quota • Purposive • Snowball • Probability • Simple random sample • Systematic random sample • Stratified random sample • Cluster sample**What are the two types of variables found in research?**• Independent • Dependent • What are the three criteria for determining causation? • Correlation (association) • Time-Order • Non-Spuriousnness • What is “correlation” and what two types are there? • Positive • Negative • What is the difference between reliability and measurement validity? • What are the three types of validity and what are they? • Measurement • External (cross-population generalizability) • Internal (causal)**Conceptualization & Operationalization**• What is conceptualization? • What is operationalization? • What is reliability? What are the four types? • Test-retest • Interitem • Alternate forms • Interobserver • What is validity? What are the four types? • Face • Content • Criterion • Construct • What are the four levels of measurement? • Nominal • Ordinal • Interval • Ratio**Name two sampling methods**• Non-probability (four types) • Availability • Quota • Purposive • Snowball • Probability • Simple random sample • Systematic random sample • Stratified random sample • Cluster sample**Identifying Variables & Correlations**• As income increases crime decreases • I= Level of Income D= Level of crime • Negative Correlation • The less religious a person is the lower his/her income will be • I= Level of religiosity D= Income Level • Positive Correlation • The more religious a person is the more likely the person is to be a republican • I= Level of religiosity D= whether or not one is a republican • Can’t measure correlation • The faster one drives the greater the risk of getting into an accident • I= Driving speed D=The risk of getting into an accident • Positive Correlation • Athletes will score higher on the history 101 exam than non-athletes • I= Whether or not one is an athlete D= History 101 exam score • Can’t measure correlation