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The New Deal

The New Deal

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The New Deal

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  1. The New Deal Chapter 15 US - 2

  2. FDR wins ‘32 Nation is ready for a change Franklin Delano Roosevelt easily wins Democrats control WH, 2/3 of Senate, ¾ House

  3. FDR was old money Senator, Sec. of Navy, Gov of NY Stricken with Polio Works to gain trust of nation with his “Fireside chats”

  4. FDR gets to work even before he is sworn in • Assembles his “Brain Trust” – expert advisors • Begins to formulate policies • Promises a NEW DEAL for the American people • Relief for the needy • Economic recovery • Financial reform

  5. 100 days – as soon as FDR gets in office he has congress pass 15 major bills. • Greatly expands the governments role in the economy • Bank Holiday

  6. EBRA – Emergency Banking Relief Act Inspect and measure up the banks GOAL : Restore public faith in banks

  7. Glass-Steagall Banking Act of 1933 Purpose: establishes FDIC Goal: restore confidence in banks

  8. Federal Securities Act • Purpose : require corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings • Creates SEC securities exchange commission – regulates stock market practices • Goal: restore public faith in the stock market

  9. National Industrial Recovery Act -NIRA Purpose : Sets prices, establish labor standards, contains PWA, NRA Goal: ensure fair business practices and promote industrial growth ***struck down by Supreme Court

  10. Agricultural Adjustment Act - AAA • Purpose: lower farm production…pays farmers • Slaughter livestock, plow under crops • Goal: Raise crop/farm prices

  11. Tennessee Valley Authority _ TVA Purpose: To build/repair dams on the Tenn. River, provide hydroelectric power Goal: To improve the quality of life for the impoverished region

  12. Civilian Conservation Corps - CCC Purpose: put young men to work on civil and conservation projects Goal: reduce unemployment, prevent soil erosion

  13. Federal Emergency Relief Administration - FERA Purpose : Provide direct relief for the needy and helped fund state run work programs Goal : Provide basic needs for those hit the hardest by the depression

  14. PWA – Public Works Administration • Purpose: Provides money to states to create jobs by taking on public construction projects • Schools, Hospitals, Town Halls • Goal : Lower unemployment

  15. CWA – Civil Works Administration Purpose: creates 4 million immediate jobs Goal: To reduce unemployment

  16. Home Owners Loan Corporation - HOLC • Purpose: Provided government backed loans to homeowners facing foreclosure • FHA also created…still around today • Goal: Help families keep their homes

  17. Attacks on the New Deal • John Maynard Keynes – British economist promotes the idea of deficit spending • A government spending more than they bring in revenues • Many conservatives argued against these policies. • Interfered with free market • “make work”programs • American Liberty League

  18. Supreme Court • Two SCOUS rulings strike down AAA and NIRA • FDR reacts and was going to try to expand the Supreme Court by 6. • Packing the court • Ton of backlash • FDR gets his way as a justice retires and he is able to shift the balance of power.

  19. Liberal Critics • Argue FDR isn’t doing enough • Rev. Charles Coughlin – broadcast Sunday sermons with political messages • guarantee income, nationalization of banks • Dr. Francis Townsend – more for poor and elderly • Senator Huey Long – LA • Wants to be president • Share the wealth campaign • Is assassinated 1935

  20. The Second New Deal Section 2

  21. By 1935 the economy has improved, but production and employment rates still lagged FDR is still popular and looking to build on his programs from years past

  22. Eleanor Roosevelt First lady, Humanitarian Reminds her husband people are still suffering Encourages her husband to appoint women to gov. offices

  23. Reelection 1936 • FDR wins – Dems dominate both houses • First time African Americans vote democrat • Unions give united support

  24. Helping Farmers New farm bills are passed to restore most of the AAA Farm Security Administration (FSA) gave loans to share croppers and migrant workers so they could buy farms of their own

  25. WPA Works Progress Administration • Between 1935 – 43 spent $11B • 8M jobs • 850 airports • 651K – Miles of Road • 125K – Public buildings • Also took on fine art projects

  26. NYA – National Youth Administration Provides education, counseling, recreation for youth Student aid in exchange for part time work

  27. Labor • Wagner Act – AKA National Labor Relations Act • Protects rights of workers to unionize • Collective bargaining • Prevents unfair labor practice • 40 work week, minimum wage, child labor rules

  28. Social Security Old Age Insurance – supplemental retirement plan Unemployment Insurance – provides unemployment benefits for laid off workers Disability and families with dependent children

  29. New Deal’s Effects Section 3

  30. Women • Appointees : Frances Perkins • Secretary of Labor • First female cabinet member \ • Gains: Women appointed to important government jobs, More women working outside of the home • Not Fixed: Employment discrimination • Wages • Hiring

  31. African Americans • Appointees: Mary McLeod Bethune (Negro Affiars in NYA), William Hastie and Robert Weaver (Dept. of Interior) – “Black Cabinet” • Gains: Greater political voice, assistant for tenant farmers • Not fixed: Racism/discrimination • Segregation • Racial violence • Poll taxes

  32. FDR does not push for Civil Rights Fear of losing southern democrat support Refused to endorse Anti-lynching, poll tax bills New Deal agencies are discriminatory

  33. Labor Unions Unions organized : CIO Congress of Industrial Organizations Gains: Better working conditions, bargaining power, increased membership Not Fixed: Strike Violence, Big Business opposition

  34. Other info • New Deal Coalition – diverse group of special interests all of which support the New Deal • Southern Whites • Urban Groups • Immigrants • Native Americans gain citizenship and gain newfound support from the government • John Collier – Commissioner of Indian Affairs • Moves away from assimilation towards autonomy