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Economic Geography “Development” PowerPoint Presentation
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Economic Geography “Development”

Economic Geography “Development”

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Economic Geography “Development”

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  1. Economic Geography“Development” Cultural Geography C.J. Cox

  2. Chapter Overview • Economic Geography • World Economic Regions • Continuum of Development • Measurement of Economic Development • Structure of Economies

  3. Geographer’s Perspective of World Economies • Geographers are interested in the distribution of wealth in the world today. • What are the patterns of wealth worldwide? • Why is wealth distributed in the manner that it is? • What can be done to improve the wealth of the poorer countries?

  4. Economic Geographers • explain how people in various places make a living, • by analyzing the characteristics of, differences among, and movements between areas of production, exchange, and consumption.

  5. Economics in Context • Of special interest economic geographers is the localization of economic activity • how has such activity has evolved historically within specific cultural and technological contexts • What are the particular physical and human resources and economic and political conditions that influence development

  6. Globalization • accelerating economic, cultural and political interdependencies across national borders. • Much of the world's economic activity is now transnational in scope. • Globalization underscores virtually all contemporary geographies.

  7. Rich & Poor

  8. Determining Development • Old Classifications • First World • Ex: North America and Western Europe • Second World • Ex: U.S.S.R. and Eastern Bloc countries. • Third World • Ex: The underdeveloped, such as much of Latin America and South-East Asia.

  9. Determining Development • New Classifications • Developed and Developing economies • Or, • Industrialized and Newly IndustrializingCountries (NIC)

  10. A Continuum of Development Poor Countries Rich Countries USA Sweden Zimbabwe

  11. Developing countries in the process of developing their economies less diversified economies mostly agricultural based economies Developed countries with developed economies more diversified economies mostly service, retail and technology based economies Developing vs. Developed

  12. How Is The Economic Development of a country Measured? • GNP • Demographic Signs of Development • Social Signs of Development • Structure of the Economy

  13. Key Terms • Per Capita Income: Per person income • Gross National Product: Total production of goods and services by a country within a period of a year • Gross Domestic Product: Total production of goods and services within a country during a period of a year

  14. Range of World GNP • World Average • $4920 • Developed Countries • $19,310 • Developing Countries • $1,120 • Lowest GNP • $80. Mozambique • Highest GNP • $41,210 Luxembourg

  15. GNP Continuum Poor Countries Rich Countries Developed Average $19,310 Developing Average $1,120 Mozambique $80 Luxembourg $41,210 USA $26,980 World Average $4920

  16. GDP 1995

  17. Single Commodity Dependent Economies Farming - orange Oil - Green Metals - pinks

  18. How Is The Economic Development of a country Measured? • GNP • Demographic Signs of Development • Social Signs of Development • Structure of the Economy

  19. Developing Countries high birth rates (5%) high natural increase (4.6%) high infant mortality (150+) high fertility (7.4) high pop under 15 (50%) low pop over 65 (1%) low doubling time (15 yrs.) short life expectancy (43 yrs.) Developed Countries low birth rates (1%) low natural increase (0) low infant mortality (.4%) low fertility (1.1) low pop under 15 (15%) high pop over 65 (18%) high doubling time (4077 yrs) long life expectancy (80 yrs) Demographic Signs of Development

  20. How Is The Economic Development of a country Measured? • GNP • Demographic Signs of Development • Social Signs of Development • Structure of the Economy

  21. Social Signs of Development • Use of consumer goods - phones, TV’s, computers • Distribution of wealth & services • health care availability • number of physicians per capita • education availability • literacy • Signs of over consumption • caloric intake

  22. How Is The Economic Development of a country Measured? • GNP • Demographic Signs of Development • Social Signs of Development • Structure of the Economy

  23. Structure of the Economy • Economic activities are divided into stages or categories of increasing complexity • Primary Sector • Secondary Sector • Tertiary Sector • Quaternary Sector Secondary Primary Tertiary Quaternary

  24. Economic SectorsStructure of the Economy • Primary Industry - extraction of resources from the earth • farming, mining, lumber harvest, fishing

  25. Primary Sector • The direct extraction of material from the earth. Generally, through agriculture, but also through mining, fishing and forestry. • Many developing nations still rely on the primary sector as a source of employment and export earnings.

  26. Interesting Facts • It is estimated that as much as 75 percent of the people in India are working in agriculture. • Less than 5 percent (maybe 3) of the work force is involved in agriculture in the United States.

  27. Rice Farming in Vietnam - primary industry

  28. Vietnam

  29. Costa Rica

  30. Economic SectorsStructure of the Economy • Secondary Industry - processing and manufacturing of resources • manufacturing

  31. Secondary Sector • The manufacturing or processing of primary products. • Associated with the Industrial Revolution.

  32. Interesting Fact • Currently, only about 15 percent of manufacturing comes from developing countries, but this figure is rising due to policies set forth by the IMF and various multilateral agreements.

  33. Sugar Refining Plant

  34. Timber Processing -Humboldt

  35. Mazarotti Plant - Italy

  36. Economic SectorsStructure of the Economy • Tertiary Industry - distribution of goods and services • trucking, banking, retail store outlets, groceries

  37. Tertiary Sector • Providing services, such as: financial, retail, government, transportation, marketing, legal, etc… • Employs most of the labor force in the developed world. • “Post-Industrial”