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History of Travel and Tourism Chapter:2 PowerPoint Presentation
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History of Travel and Tourism Chapter:2

History of Travel and Tourism Chapter:2

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History of Travel and Tourism Chapter:2

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    2. Recognize the antiquity of human travel over vast distances on both sea and land. Understand how journeys have evolved throughout the human history Learn about some of the great travelers in history Discover the many similarities in travel motivations, economic conditions, political situations, attractions, and tourist facilities during the time of the Roman Empire and that of today.

    3. Introduction

    4. Introduction

    5. Early Ages Travel in early ages was primitive, often risky and dangerous. Mainly three groups were the most travelers: The military, government officials, and caravans. For the most part the early travelers were the Phoenicians and the Mandarin Chinese business travelers. The beginnings of official government travel were a direct result of rulers: emissaries and tax collectors. At the time of the Assyrian empire, the means of travel were improved, largely for military use, and roads were improved, and markers were established.

    6. Early Ages A ten-volume travel guide was published in 70 A.D. by the Greek, entitled A Guide to Greece Some travel books were written by Greeks such as Strabo and Pausanias. Pausanias book is one of the oldest guide book called the Description of Egypt written around 160 A.D. The collapse of Roman Empire was the downfall of travel for several centuries. The early Greeks used a coin currency, replacing the need for travelers to carry goods to barter at their final destinations. Greeks enjoyed traveling to religious festivals and events like Olympic games. In 334 B.C. some 700,000 tourists visited Ephesus in a single season.

    7. Great Pyramids of Egypt (including Sphinx) Hanging Gardens of Babylon Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus Statue of Zeus at Olympia Collosus of Rhodes in the Harbor at Rhodes Great Lighthouse (Pharos) in Alexandria, Egypt Temple Artemis at Ephesus

    8. The invention of wheel led to the development of roads First known roads were built in China as far back in 1122 B.C. During the Persian Empire from 560 to 330 B.C. a road system was constructed. Horse-drawn cars invented for wars Hittites paved a mile and a third of road A two lane road was built in Old Greece Who traveled?: the military, government officials, and caravans Assyrians improved roads for military use

    9. As ancient world empires grew in Africa, Asia and the Middle East routes were necessary for travel especially for war chariots. Romans started building roads in about 312 B.C. A road that took over a hundred years bult was the romans firs ever road called Via Apia a network of 52,820 miles, reached every corner of the whole empire. The Romans could travel as much as 100 miles a day Romans also traveled to see the famous temples in the Mediterranean area, and Pyramids in Egypt. Roman tourist used guidebooks, employed guides, and bought souvenirs from the locations visited.

    10. Pilgrimage was the main purpose of travel throughout the middle ages. This period also saw the growth of many medieval cities. Trade gained popularity and trade routes were very busy during the height of the summer. Travelers brought souvenirs from the places they had visited as a token to remind travelers of the images they have seen. Some people spend their whole times in places where they were born. Only a handful people traveled far, some traveled around Europe, Africa and Asia. On the road of Holly land there were many inns for travelers Merchants also traveled in order to find new commodities to sell. Merchants brought many luxuries from far off places.

    11. The ancient Silk Road served many traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers. The Silk Road was a famous trade passageway in ancient times, going across Asia to Europe. East and West met more than 2000 years ago when silk road connected China and Roman Empire. Westbound caravans carried furs, ceramics, spices, medicine, peach, apricot, etc., Eastbound ones carried precious metals, gems, ivory, glass, perfumes, textiles, etc.,

    12. A traveler whose writings was destined to educate Europeans about the rest of the world was Marco Polo (1254-1324). He traveled to China between 1271-1295 (24 years). Polos book on his travel was the main source of information about life in the East during this period. One of the famous travel book is Travels written by Sir John Mandeville and was printed in several languages in 1357. By the 15th century there is a record of an actual package tour which originated in Venice to the Holy land. This package tour included meals, accommodations, donkey rides, and the bribe money. Early versions of fast food stands popped up along pilgrim travel ways.

    13. The Great Age of Discovery began in the 15th century New world discovered and opened to adventure travelers The Romantic Age of Travel was ushered in, travel writing became popular. The travelers between the 14th and 17th centuries used as their travel motivator to desire to broaden ones experience and knowledge. In England, Queen Elizabeth I approved a form of travel to groom future diplomats. Universities such as Oxford and Cambridge in England and Salamanca in Spain provided travel fellowship.

    14. England issued a travelers license, disclosed travel restrictions, how much money, how many horses, and servants the traveler could take. Tourists also were issued passports, contained a list of towns and cities through which the holder was permitted to pass. Early passports contained the physical description of the holder. In the early 20th century as photography become cheaper and more widespread, photographs being added to passports.

    15. The Grand tour started in the mid 1600s and ran through the mid 1800s. It was popular amongst young British upper-class men. Sons of well-to-do families traveled to European cities, mainly to the cities of France and Italy It become fashionable for scholars to study in Paris, Rome, Florence, Venice and other cultural centers. The first major guidebook to the Grand Tour was titled Grand Tour which appeared first in 1749 by Thomas Nugent.

    16. The industrial Revolution Ages lasted from about 1750 to 1850 brought leisure travel to Europe. Created the base for Mass Tourism Steam engines replaced horsepower In 1838, the first steamship crossed the Atlantic Ocean Opening of Suez Canal (1869) brought Europe closer to Asia than ever before. A series of turnpikes was built in England 1751-1771 Profound economic and social changes Middle class people in cities, relatively inexpensive transportation.

    17. International travel for pleasure and education of the Wealthy in Europe become popular. More people took vacations People could experience the products of hotel, restaurant, and other kitchens, sometimes in foreign countries. An English lady, Isabella Bird made a remarkable series of journeys around the world, including America, Hawaii, Asia, Middle East and North Africa. Toward the end of the 19th century, workers began to get annual vacations. Many turned to spas and seaside resorts for their holidays which set the tone more or less for the modem leisure tourist.

    18. In 1822, (In England) Robert Smart announced himself as the first steamship agent. In 1841, (In England) Thomas Cook organized first mass travel, a trip of 12 miles, carried 570 passengers. In 1845 Thomas Cook conducts his first trip for profit In 1855 he conducted further excursions to Calais in France In 1860s he took parties to Switzerland, Italy, Egypt and U.S. Cook established inclusive independent travel

    19. In 1860s he became an agent for the sale of domestic and overseas travel tickets. In 1872 he started a world tour which lasted 222 days and included a steamship across the Atlantic, a stage coach across America, a paddle steamer to Japan, and an overland journey across China and India. In 1874, Thomas Cook introduced circular notes a product that later become better known by American expresss brand, travelers cheques.

    20. After the first World War, while Europeans yearned to travel to America, Americans flocked to Europe. Travel reached the "golden age" in the 1920s and '30s when the rich boarded luxury liners and railroad cars. In the first half of the twentieth century a seaside holiday for most people began with a train journey Many small fishing villages were transformed into thriving and busy resorts when the railway network finally extended to them.

    21. Train travel in both Europe and America came to within reach of most everyone and the automobile created the notion that anyone could do it. The first generation of tourism that began with the jet age has moved on and opened into a new era, the special interest travel.

    22. The combination of desire, mobility, accessibility, and affordability made mass travel possible. New technologies such as aviation, computers, robots, and satellite communications have transformed the way that people live, work, and play. Modern technology increased leisure time, provided additional discretionary income, enhanced telecommunications, and created more efficient modes of transportation. tourism will continue to be one of the most dynamic growth sectors of the global economy.

    23. Next Chapter