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TRUMAN DOCTRINE

TRUMAN DOCTRINE

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TRUMAN DOCTRINE

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  1. TRUMAN DOCTRINE -French Indochina-French attempt to rule Vietnam after WWII Ho Chi Minh led rebellion against French, leader of North -containment and domino theory: don’t want communism to spread -Eisenhower sends to train S. Vietnam Army -Ngo Dinh Diem cancels elections, ushered in corrupt gov’t -Viet-Cong begins fighting (communist group in the South)

  2. GULF OF TONKIN -Diem’s gov’t unpopular -Diem is assassinated -limited bombing already begun -Ho Chi Minh Trail supplies arms to Vietcong -Gulf of Tonkin U.S. ship “attacked” http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3998 LBJ asks for action (war) Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: gives LBJ broad military power in Vietnam -statement was prepared before the attack -Operation Rolling Thunder begins bombing Vietnam (air bombing will end war)

  3. DIFFERENT WAR -US War Leaders -Sec. Robert McNamara (defense) -Gen. William Westmoreland (commander of S. Vietnam) -Viet Cong used guerilla tactics -hard to differentiate friend from foe -American search and destroy tactics, unfamiliarity makes this even harder -napalmgas based bomb, sets woods on fire -Agent Orange toxic chemical to kill plants

  4. COSTS OF WAR -low morale of soldiers frustrated, failure -Great Society spending is reduced to pay for war effort “guns or butter” -first television warnews reports led to anguish and -credibility gap develops reality vs. what is being told -protests begin major part of Vietnam War experience

  5. OPPOSITION -Hawks: support war -Doves: oppose war and want immediate withdraw -No end in sight to the war

  6. WAR PROTESTS -why are we fighting this war??? Americans don’t understand -working man’s war deferment can be bought (move, pay off doctor, college, etc) -unfair practices draft 18-26 age men deferments put off military service objectors young American protestors dodging moving to avoid draft

  7. Protests Begin Students for a Democratic Society stated that large corporations and gov’t had taken over America -restoration of democracy and greater individual freedom -teach-ins about the war : aimed to protest war -picketing the White House -backlash against anti-war view despite protests majority of Americans remain loyal

  8. Tet Offensive -American forces were over ½ million, -leaders predicting end of war soon, Tet Offensive shows otherwise = credibility gap -Jan. 1968 major attack by Vietcong shows no sign of defeat to come lasts a month before S. Vietnam regains control, TURNING POINT These actions shock the Amer. public -public opinion turns on LBJ

  9. Year--1968 -LBJ scales back war effort and decides to not seek re-election “The war killed the lady I really loved—The Great Society” -assassinations of King, RFK ends CRM -college protests Colombia held nation’s attn. for over a week (violence and turmoil) -Democratic Convention, Chicago rioting occurs -helps led to the election of Nixon

  10. Nixon Wins -Nixon wins election but stays in Vietnam??? Slowly pull out troops -Vietnamization policy of pulling American ground forces out of Vietnam while training Vietnamese troops to do most of the ground fighting with American air support -bombing of Laos and Cambodia attempting to stop Viet Cong supply lines -angers nation and leads to more protests -Nixon tries to leave without admitting defeat “peace with honor”

  11. My Lai Massacre • 1968—mass murder by the Charlie Company of the US Army • “Some of the people were trying to get up and run. They couldn't and fell down. This one woman, I remember, she stood up and tried to make it — tried to run — with a small child in her arms. But she didn't make it.” • “He fired at it [the baby] with a .45. He missed. We all laughed. He got up three or four feet closer and missed again. We laughed. Then he got up right on top and plugged him.” • “Soldiers went berserk, gunning down unarmed men, women, children and babies. Families which huddled together for safety in huts or bunkers were shown no mercy. Those who emerged with hands held high were murdered. ... Elsewhere in the village, other atrocities were in progress. Women were gang raped; Vietnamese who had bowed to greet the Americans were beaten with fists and tortured, clubbed with rifle butts and stabbed with bayonets. Some victims were mutilated with the signature "C Company" carved into the chest. By late morning word had got back to higher authorities and a cease-fire was ordered. My Lai was in a state of carnage. Bodies were strewn through the village.”

  12. Homefront -My Lai Massacre, 1968 Mass murder of mostly civilians by US Army -protests renew over Cambodia US invades in effort to stop Vietcong—leads to more protests -Kent State mass protest, very violent (9 hurt, 4 killed) -Jackson State 2 killed -Pentagon Papers -classified documents taken from the Pentagon that document the actions of several Presidents during Vietnam acting without Congressional knowledge confirmed gov’t had not been honest of intentions -NY Times v. US, 1971 allowed publication of Pentagon papers

  13. Vietnam Ends -early 1973 US leaves Vietnam -Paris Peace Accords -Fall of Saigon, 1975 South falls to North -58,000 killed 365,000 wounded -veterans treated differently US is bitter about the war; post-traumatic stress disorder -Passage of the 26th Amendment voting age changed to 18 -Vietnam Memorial -Vietnamese refugees -War Powers Act limits the ability of Presidents to wage war