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The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System

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The Respiratory System

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  1. The Respiratory System May 29, 2012pgs. 153-154

  2. Know: What does the respiratory system do for your body? Use complete sentences. Evidence Drawings pg 569 and 573 color and captions

  3. Respiratory System Functions Information Clarifying ?s 1. Move oxygen from outside environment into body. 2. Removes carbon dioxide/H20 from body. respiration - Body moves oxygen from outside into the body, removes carbon dioxide/water from the body. Can’t happen w/o digestive/circulation systems Respiration Process 1. Air enters body by the nose or mouth.2. Blood vessels heat the air as it enters the body.3. Mucus produced to moisten the air, which keeps tissue from drying out. 4. Breathing through nose allows nasal hair to remove irritants/ cilia removes dust and bacteria.

  4. Respiratory System Information Clarifying ?s - tiny hair like extensions in the nostrils where dust and bacteria are trapped Cilia 5. air enters a cavity at the back of the throat-- pharynx. The pharynxhas digestive/respiratory functions: provides passageway to esophagus or trachea. 6. After air enters the trachea, it branches in two directions at the bronchi. Each bronchus goes to a lung. The bronchi further branch off into smaller bronchioles. - the passageway to the lungs - AKA the windpipe trachea - a flap of tissue, blocks the trachea during swallowing, diverts food to the esophagus epiglottis

  5. Respiratory System Information Clarifying ?s 7. Air enters lungs, main organs of respiratory system. 8. Air passageways continue to branch off smaller and smaller until end with tiny clusters of air sacs-- alveoli. Respiratory/circulatory systems mesh here. Alveoli -tiny air sacs of living tissue surrounded by capillaries where gas exchange between CO2 & O2 takes place 9. Gas exchange in the lungs. O2 passes through alveoli and capillary walls, then carried by red blood cells throughout body. At the same time CO2 leaves the capillaries and enters the alveoli. CO2 and H2O are removed from body by exhaling. FYI - breathe out, expelling carbon dioxide and water. Cold day—breath looks foggy b/c you see water in your breath Page86

  6. Respiratory System Information Clarifying ?s Breathing Mechanics Diaphragm moves downward, enlarges chest cavity = low pressure. Air outside rushes into lungs to fill low pressure area. Diaphragm moves upward, reduces size of chest cavity, = high pressure, forces air out lungs. - large dome shaped muscle below the lungs-- the muscle that aches when exercise too much - AKA “side aches.” Controls breathing diaphragm Speaking Mechanics air from lungs passes through larynx or vocal cords causing vibrations. Vocal cords open/close create sound. Short, tight vocal cords = high tones, long relaxed vocal cords = low tones. Lips, tongue, and teeth are needed to create speech. Summary:

  7. Functions Information Clarifying ?s 1. Moves oxygen from the outside environment into the body. 2. Expels carbon dioxide and water from the body. The Body & Oxygen Oxygen is required for the energy releasing chemical reactions that take place in your cells. Energy is released to fuel growth and other cell processes. respiration - Oxygen and glucose in the cells undergo a complex series of chemical reactions. This requires the digestive system to absorb glucose from food and the circulatory system to carry oxygen from the lungs and the glucose from food into the cells. The air The oxygen our bodies need comes from the gases in the atmosphere (Approx. 21%=O2, 78%=N, 1%=other gases). The body uses very little of the inhaled air and exhales the rest. Air Pathway 1. Air can enter the body by way of the nose or mouth. Blood vessels heat the air as it enters the body. Mucus is produced to moisten the air, which keeps tissue from drying out. Breathing through the nose is beneficial because nasal hair removes unwanted irritants and cilia removes dust and bacteria. Page

  8. Information Clarifying ?s - tiny hair like extensions in the nostrils where dust and bacteria are trapped Cilia 2. The air enters a cavity at the back of the throat called the pharynx. The pharynx has both digestive and respiratory functions: It provides a passageway to either the esophagus or the trachea. The epiglottis diverts food to the esophagus. trachea - the passageway to the lungs - AKA the windpipe - a flap of tissue that blocks the trachea during swallowing. It diverts food to the esophagus and keeps food from going down the “wrong pipe.” epiglottis FYI - Normally air goes to the lungs, but you can intentionally “swallow” air, which will then make you burp. Normally, while eating, food goes down your esophagus. If you talk or breathe while swallowing, food can get into your trachea and you choke. 3. After the air enters the trachea, it branches in two directions at the bronchi. Each bronchus goes to a lung. The bronchi further branch off into smaller bronchioles. Page

  9. Information Clarifying ?s 4. The air then enters the lungs, which are the main organs of the respiratory system. There are two lungs - a right and a left. 5. The air passageways continue to branch off smaller and smaller until they finally terminate with tiny clusters of air sacs called alveoli. This is where the circulatory and respiratory systems mesh. -tiny air sacs of living tissue surrounded by capillaries where gas exchange between CO2 & O2 takes place (The alveoli resemble super tiny clusters of grapes.) Alveoli 6. Gas exchange takes place in the lungs. O2 passes through alveoli and capillary walls, then is carried by red blood cells to parts of the body. At the same time CO2 leaves the capillaries and enters the alveoli. CO2 and H2O are then expelled from the body by breathing it out. FYI - When you breathe out, you are expelling carbon dioxide and water. This is why your breath looks like a foggy mist on a really cold day; you are seeing the water in your breath. Page

  10. Information Clarifying ?s The mechanics of breathing Breathing is controlled by the diaphragm muscle. When the diaphragm moves downward, this enlarges the chest cavity, which causes low pressure. Air outside rushes into the lungs to fill this low pressure area. When the diaphragm moves upward, this reduces the size of the chest cavity. This creates high pressure, which forces air out of the lungs. - large dome shaped muscle below the lungs that assists in breathing. This muscle can only be controlled consciously in part; the autonomic nervous system has ultimate control over the diaphragm. This is the muscle that aches when a person exercises to much - AKA “side aches.” diaphragm The mechanics of speaking As air rushes from the lungs, it passes through the larynx or vocal cords causing vibrations. As the vocal cords open and close they create sound. Short, tight vocal cords will create high tones and long relaxed vocal cords will create low tones. However, this is only part of speaking. The lips, tongue, and teeth are needed to add the final touches. The end result - speech. Page

  11. All pictures came from Google Image Search. To fall within the Fair Use Guidelines, this PowerPoint must be used within the confines of the classroom and may not be published back onto the Internet unless the pictures are removed.