New Chemical Hazard Communication Standard Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals, WAC 296-901-140
What is the GHS? • Harmonized criteria for classifying substances and mixtures according to their health, environmental and physical hazards. • Harmonized hazard communication system including requirements for labeling and safety data sheets (SDS). • Target audience - workers, employers, consumers, transport workers, emergency responders.
Agencies Involved with the GHS FederalWashington State DOT WSDOT OSHA L&I / DOSH EPA DOE & WSDA CPSC
Dark green: Countries/regions that have already implemented GHS. Light green: Countries/regions where GHS is voluntary. Yellow:Countries/regions that are in the process of implementing GHS. Blue:Countries/regions where GHS is not implemented or not available.
OSHA’s “HazCom 2012” Standard • Published March 26, 2012 • Conforms to the GHS, Rev. 3 • Changes to: • Hazard classification • Label content • Safety Data Sheet content (mandatory 16 section SDS, % required)
Stay tuned . . . • The GHS is updated on a two year cycle. • Recent updates have mostly been text clarifications. • Future updates of the Chemical Haz Com standard may be necessary.
WISHA’s new GHS-basedHazard Communication Standard Effective April 15, 2013
Substantially identical to OSHA’s standard Phase-in schedule: • During the transition period, there is the option to comply with the applicable requirements in the existing rules, or the requirements in the new rule, or both. • June 1, 2014: ERs train EEs on Safety Data Sheet (SDS) format and new label elements. • June 1, 2015: Manufacturers & importers comply with new SDS and label requirements. • Dec. 1, 2015: Distributors not to ship unless container has GHS label.
Substantially identical to OSHA’s standard Phase-in schedule, cont.: • June 1, 2016: ERs update labels, EE hazard training, and written Haz Com programs. • Upon completion of the transition period, the existing standard (296-800-170) will be repealed.
Exemptions • All the current exemptions from the rule, and exemptions from labeling, still apply. • One new exemption from the rule: • “Nuisance particulates where the chemical manufacturer or importer can establish that they do not pose any physical or health hazard covered under this section.”
Major Changes • Labels & SDS • No longer performance-based. • Each hazard class and category has specified hazard statement(s), signal word, pictogram(s), and precautionary statement(s) in mandatory Appendix C. Those elements must appear on the label and SDS.
Major Changes • Hazard determination • Now titled “hazard classification” • Detailed data-based criteria • Health hazard criteria in mandatory Appendix A and non-mandatory Appendix F • Physical hazard criteria in mandatory Appendix B • Specified; no longer performance-based
Classification of chemical hazards • Hazard class: the nature of the physical or health hazards, e.g., flammable solid, carcinogen, oral acute toxicity. • Hazard category: division by degree or type of hazard within each hazard class.
1. Find the hazard class From Appendix B:
2. Find the hazard category From Appendix B:
3. Find the required label elements From Appendix C:
Exploding Bomb Symbol • Unstable Explosives • Explosives (Divisions 1.1-1.4) • Self-reactives (Type A and Type B with Flame) • Organic Peroxides (Type A and Type B with Flame)
Flame Symbol • Flammable Gases • Flammable Aerosols • Flammable Liquids (Categories 1-3) • Flammable Solids • Self-Reactives (Type B with bomb, Types C-F) • Pyrophoric liquids and solids • Self-heating substances • Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases • Organic Peroxides (Type B with bomb, Types C-F)
Flame over Circle Symbol • Oxidizing Gases • Oxidizing Liquids • Oxidizing Solids
Gas Cylinder Symbol • Compressed Gas • Liquefied Gas • Refrigerated Liquefied Gas • Dissolved Gas
Corrosion Symbol • Corrosive to Metals (steel or aluminum >6.25 mm/year at 55C) • Skin corrosion/ irritation – Category 1 (A, B and C) • Serious eye damage/ irritation – Category 1
Skull and Crossbones Symbol • Acute Toxicity – Categories 1-3 (oral, inhalation or dermal routes)
Exclamation Mark Symbol • Acute Toxicity – Category 4 (oral, inhalation or dermal routes) • Skin Irritation/ Corrosion – Category 2 • Serious Eye damage/ irritation – Category 2A • Skin Sensitizer • Specific target organ toxicity (single exposure) – Category 3 (respiratory tract irritation, narcotic effects) • Hazardous to the Ozone Layer
Health Hazard Symbol • Respiratory Sensitizer • Germ Cell Mutagenicity • Carcinogenicity • Toxic to Reproduction • Specific target organ toxicity (single exposure) – Categories 1-2 • Specific target organ toxicity (repeated exposure) – Categories 1-2 • Aspiration Hazard
Environment Symbol* • Acute hazards to the aquatic environment – Category 1 (Categories 2 and 3 use no symbol or signal word) • Chronic hazards to the aquatic environment – Categories 1 and 2 (Categories 3 and 4 use no symbol or signal word) *Part of GHS, but not required by WISHA or OSHA standards.
Hazard statements • Hazard statement is specified for each level of hazard (category) within each hazard class (See Appendix C) • Example: Flammable liquids • Category 1: Extremely flammable liquid and vapour • Category 2: Highly flammable liquid and vapour • Category 3: Flammable liquid and vapour • Category 4: Combustible liquid 32
Hazard statements • The text of all applicable hazard statements shall appear on the label. • Hazard statements may be combined where appropriate to reduce the information on the label and improve readability, as long as all of the hazards are conveyed as required. 33
Multiple hazards • The pictogram and signal word used must reflect the most severe hazard category; and all relevant hazard statements must be used. • If skull and crossbones, no exclamation point for acute toxicity • If corrosive, no exclamation point for eye/skin irritation • If health hazard for respiratory sensitization, no exclamation point for skin sensitization or eye/skin irritation
Precautionary statements "Precautionary statement" means a phrase that describes recommended measures that should be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to a hazardous chemical, or improper storage or handling. 35
Precautionary statements • There are 4 types of precautionary statements • Prevention • Response • Storage • Disposal 36
Precautionarystatements • May be combined or consolidated to save label space and improve readability. • Where a chemical has multiple hazards and the precautionary statements are similar, the most stringent shall be included on the label. • An order of precedence may be imposed. • If the chemical manufacturer, importer, or responsible party can demonstrate that a precautionary statement is inappropriate to a specific substance, it may be omitted from the label. 37
Supplementary hazard information • Only allowed if it provides further detail and does not contradict or cast doubt on the validity of the standardized hazard information. • Placement shall not impede identification of information required by the Standard. 38
Label arrangement • Label elements must be located together on the label, tag or mark. • Must not conflict with DOT regulations. • Pictograms must have red border. • Red frame must be wide enough to be clearly visible. • Blank red diamonds are not permitted. • Where a DOT label appears on a shipped container, the same OSHA pictogram shall not appear. • Labels must be in English (other languages also permitted).
Product identifier 4. Hazard statement(s) Signal word 5. Precautionary statement(s) Pictogram(s) 6. Contact info for responsible party
Potential for confusion • In NFPA 704 and HMIS, “4” = severe hazard • In GHS, “4” = low hazard HMIS/NFPA IndexHazard 1 slight 2 moderate 3 serious 4 severe GHS CategoryHazard 1 highest 2 high 3 medium 4 low
From the preamble to OSHA’s new standard:“Neither the proposal nor final rule prohibits the use of NFPA or HMIS rating systems.” • Federal Register, 77(58), Monday, March 26, 2012, p. 17758
Potential for confusion • May confuse employers who need to look up hazard categories. • Most employees won’t notice unless it’s covered in their training, because hazard categories don’t appear on labels or SDSs (only used to determine required label info)
MATERIALSAFETYDATA SHEETS SAFETYDATASHEETS
Safety Data Sheets • 16-section format now required, similar to the current ANSI format. • Order of the sections is specified. • Specific required information for each section is in mandatory Appendix D. • Environmental provisions are included to be GHS-compliant; DOSH will not enforce (sections 12-15). SAFETYDATASHEETS
Safety Data Sheets • Must be in English (additional languages OK) • If there’s no relevant information for a section, it must be marked to indicate no data • Preparer must assure information accurately reflects the scientific evidence used in making the hazard classification • Preparer must update within 3 months of significant new information. If not currently produced, then before shipped again or introduced into the workplace.
SDS distribution • Provide with initial shipment, and with first shipment after update. • Either before or with the shipment, on request. • Retail and wholesale distributors shall post a sign or inform employers that SDSs are available.
New SDS elements • Standardized pictograms, hazard statements, signal words, and precautionary statements • Exact percentages of ingredients are required in most cases; some may still give ranges: • When there is a trade secret claim. • When a product varies batch-to-batch. • For a group of substantially similar mixtures with similar chemical composition.
SDS required sections 1. Identification 2. Hazard(s) identification 3. Composition/information on ingredients 4. First-aid measures 5. Fire-fighting measures 6. Accidental release measures 7. Handling & storage 8. Exposure control/personal protection 9. Physical & chemical properties 10. Stability & reactivity 11. Toxicological information 12. Ecological information 13. Disposal considerations 14. Transport information 15. Regulatory information 16. Other information