Industrialization Chapter 9 Section 2
What are the positive and negative ways that industrialization affects our own lives?
Industrialization Changes Life • By the 1800’s, people earned higher wages in factories rather than farms • Urbanization- city building and movement of people towards cities • Factories developed in clusters near sources of energy (water and coal) • London most important city in England (pop. 1 million by 1800)
Living Conditions • 1. Rapidly growing cities, but no development plan, sanitary codes, or building codes • 2. Lacked adequate housing, education, and police protection • 3. Unpaved streets- no drains, garbage collected • 4. Workers lived in dark, dirty shelters (1 family in 1 bedroom) • 5. Epidemics- cholera • 6. Life span- 17 yrs working class, 38 yrs rural
Working Conditions • Average worker- 14 hours per day on the job • Factories were not well lit or clean • Machines injured workers • Women and children cheap source of labor
Class Tensions Growing • Middle Class: • Factory owners, merchants and bankers grew wealthier than landowners and aristocrats • Landowners looked down on those who made their fortune in the “vulgar” business world • Upper middle class: • gov’t employees, doctors, lawyers, factory managers • Lower middle class: • factory overseers and skilled workers
Class Tensions Growing • Working Class: • Laborers saw little improvement in working and living conditions • Luddites- smashed machines that were putting them out of work; rioted outside factories
Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution • Created jobs for workers • Contributed to the wealth of the nation • Technological progress • Increased production of goods and standard of living • Healthier diets, better housing, cheaper mass produced clothing • Educational opportunities • Workers formed labor unions to improve conditions
Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution • Long-Term Effects: • Greater affordability of consumer goods • Tax revenues to invest in urban improvements
Video: Living During the Industrial Revolution • Quiz: True or False • 1. Cottage industries replaced textile factories after the Industrial Revolution. • 2. Interchangeable parts were developed by Eili Whitney. • 3. Most of the new textile machines developed in the 18th century were invented in the U.S.A. • 4. Cotton gins were used to remove seeds from fibers. • 5. In the 19th century, steam engines were mainly used to remove pollutants from the air.
Final Thought • The industrial revolution has been described as a mixed blessing. Do you agree or disagree? Use examples from class notes and the text as evidence.