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  1. RUMINANTS! Agriscience

  2. Anatomy Process Physiology Development Ruminant Digestion Agriscience

  3. Mammalian Digestive Systems Agriscience • Monogastric • Equine • Ruminant

  4. Monogastric (Simple Stomach) Agriscience • Humans, pigs, predators • One compartment • Glandular design

  5. Equine • Horses and their relatives • One glandular compartment • Hind-gut fermenter (cecum) to digest plants Agriscience

  6. Ruminant • Most herbivores • Four compartment stomach • Fore-gut fermentation vat to digest plants Agriscience

  7. The Ruminant Nature’s Amazing Plant-Digesting Machine Agriscience

  8. I thought Dumbo was an elephant Ruminant Facts (Bovine) • Chews cud • 40,000-60,000 jaw movements/day • No upper incisors - dental pad • Does not “bite” grass - wraps tongue • Uses fermentation to digest plants • Symbiotic relationship with bacteria • Produces 13 gallons of gas/hour • Produces 40 liters of saliva/day • Does not sleep! Agriscience

  9. Stomach Compartments • Rumen - fermentation vat • Reticulum - rumen’s “assistant” • Omasum - dehydrator • Abomasum - glandular stomach Agriscience Rumen + Reticulum = Reticulorumen

  10. Rumen • Largest compartment • On left side of animal • Contains micro-organisms • Ferments cellulose • Absorbs VFA’s • Divided into chambers • Continually contracting • Contains papillae • Produces CO2 and CH4 • pH close to neutral (6 - 7) Agriscience

  11. Reticulum • Smallest compartment • Lies close to the heart • Small sac - part of rumen body • Catches dense, heavy feed for later rumination • Contracts for regurgitation • “Honeycomb” lining • Catches hardware and stores it Agriscience

  12. Omasum Agriscience • Third compartment • Globe-shaped • Lining called “many plies” • Reduces feed particle size • Absorbs water and dries out ingesta • Absorbs volatile fatty acids

  13. Abomasum • Final compartment • Tubular in design • “True” stomach (glandular) • Secretes HCl and enzymes for chemical digestion • Reduces pH to 2.5 • Dissolves minerals • Kills rumen bacteria • Breaks down proteins • Passes ingesta to small intestine Agriscience

  14. Ruminant Digestion Agriscience

  15. Rumination Ruminant Digestion • Intake • Mastication (chewing) • Swallowing • Regurgitation • Remastication • Fermentation • Eructation • Absorption • Digestion Agriscience

  16. Fermentation • Anaerobic bacteria break down cellulose • VFA’s released by bacteria passed to bloodstream through papillae • CO2 and CH4 produced by bacteria • Bacteria controlled by protozoa • Ingesta passed to omasum by contractions Agriscience

  17. Calf Digestive Tract Development Agriscience

  18. Abomasum - 4 liters Rumen - 1.7 liters Total Size - 6.7 liters Calf Digestive Tract Development Newborn Agriscience • Only abomasum is functional • Sucking action forms esophageal groove • Milk passes directly to abomasum • Milk curdles and digests slowly • Rumen does not develop as long as calf is on milk only

  19. Abomasum - 4 liters Rumen - 13 liters Total Size - 20 liters Calf Digestive Tract Development 12-16 Weeks Agriscience • Feed (grain) consumption causes rumen to develop • Rumen is populated with micro-organisms from environment • Bacteria produce VFA’s which cause rumen to develop papillae and increase in size • Calf can digest hay and grass once rumen develops

  20. Rumen Exploration Agriscience Lab Agriscience

  21. The Cannula • Provides direct access to the rumen • Possible only in ruminants • Rumen wall is very close to epidermis behind the ribs on the left side • Surgically inserted by a veterinarian • Not painful or dangerous to the cow • Permits researchers to: • Observe rumen function • Evaluate digestion of different feedstuffs • Remove fluid to use as inoculant for sick cows Agriscience

  22. Rumen Investigation and Sampling Agriscience • Put on obstetrical glove • Remove cannula lid and permit gas to exit • Feel rumen wall and papillae • Reach into ingesta • Pick up ingesta (liquid and solid) • Collect a fluid sample

  23. Rumen Fluid Evaluation The Rumen Contains: • Bacteria (digest cellulose) • Over 200 species • Smaller than 5 microns (5/1000 mm) • Can only be seen with an electron microscope • Protozoa (control bacteria population) • Much larger (20-200 microns) • Can be seen with microscope at 400X • Prey on bacteria • Fungi (aid in cellulose digestion) • Same size range as protozoa • Numbers are very low in rumen • Discovered only 20 years ago Agriscience

  24. Rumen Fluid Evaluation • Place a drop of fluid on a slide • Position cover slip • Place under microscope • Locate fluid smear at low power • Increase to 400X and adjust light Agriscience

  25. Dasytrich and Entodinium protozoa Large protozoa Rumen Microorganisms Isotrich and Entodinium protozoa Fungal sporangia

  26. Agreement • To Comply With Unapproved and Extra-label Drug Use Rules • Of the Georgia Junior Livestock Program • By signing this agreement I acknowledge and agree to the following: • I am a bona fide member of the Morgan County FFA Chapter. • I understand that the Georgia Department of Agriculture may conduct random urine drug tests on all species at the livestock shows beginning in 2004. • I have read and/or had explained to me the rules regarding unapproved and extra-label drug use in animals participating in the Georgia Junior Livestock Program and agree to abide by the following: • I agree not to give a show animal any medication not specifically labeled for it according to its species, age, time to slaughter, or stage of lactation. • I agree not to exceed labeled dosages when giving animals over-the-counter medication or medication prescribed by a veterinarian. • I agree not to give a show animal prescription medication unless that animal is under the care of a licensed veterinarian. • If I have an animal under the care of a veterinarian and am administering medication according to the veterinarian’s instructions I agree to have the prescription in my possession while my animal is on the premises of a show. I understand that a prescription does not necessarily mean that my show animal is automatically in compliance with the rules if a urine test reveals a specific violation. • I agree to abide by withdrawal times of medications and/or feed additives. I will not bring an animal to a show that is within the withdrawal window stated on the medication and/or feed additive’s label. • I agree to notify Mr. Savelle of any medications that my show animal is receiving as soon as I begin administering the medication. • I understand that violation of the rules on unapproved and extra-label drug use in animals that I exhibit in the Georgia Junior Livestock Program may result in fines, disbarment from exhibiting livestock at junior shows in the future, and possible legal action against myself, my parents, and my agriculture teacher. • I have participated in a class offered by my FFA chapter in which I was made aware of the rules governing unapproved or extra-label drug use by the Georgia Junior Livestock Program. • Signature of Student • Date: • Signature of Parent/Guardian • Signature of Agriculture Teacher/FFA Advisor

  27. Agriscience