What is a civilization? • Civilization is: the formation of a highly complex and organized group of people. • A key in the development of a civilization is the creation of cities.
Features of Civilization • There are 4 other features that are part of a civilization: • Cities and Government • Jobs and Technology • Social Classes and Religion • Writing and Record Keeping
Cities and Government • Cities- An area where people come together and live to: • improve farming • Develop artistic and technological skills • Laws and government- rules and organization that establish order in civilization.
Jobs and Technology • Cities grow and jobs must come to help meet the demands of the people. • Technology: Tools, Machines, Architecture and other skills that enhance life.
Social Class • Social Class- Groups with different levels of importance. • Priests and Rulers • Farmers and Merchants • Slaves
Religion and Government • Religious and government leaders are often the same. • This system of government is called a theocracy. • Claims of power to rule coming from the gods. • People believe that there are gods of life, death, marriage, and weather. • People engage in activities in hopes of pleasing the gods.
Writing and Record Keeping • As cities grow, people need ways to keep track of information • Merchants create records to keep track of purchases and sales. • Rulers record laws and taxes • Writing created in order to keep records
Pictographs • Developed 5,000 years ago to help people express ideas and communicate • Symbols are added later to represent ideas and objects.
Cuneiform • Cuneiform is a wedge-shaped script developed in 3300 B.C. by the Mesopotamians • Around 500 wedges make up the Sumerian Alphabet
The Fertile Crescent • Stretches from Persian Gulf to eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea • Includes two rivers: Tigris and Euphrates • Between these 2 rivers is the land of Mesopotamia
City States • City-States are independent states that include cities and their surrounding areas (3200 B.C.) • Sumer- 3500 B.C. • Ur- 2500 B.C.
The Nile Valley • Home to the Egyptian Civilization (3000 B.C.) • The consistent flooding of the Nile provides fertile soil for crops.
The Narmer Palette • The Narmer Palette tells the legend of King Menes uniting both the lower and upper Kingdoms of Egypt. • The legend explains the rising of Egypt’s first dynasty • A dynasty is a family of rulers.
The Indus River Valley • The Indus River Valley is located in modern Pakistan. • Sea Port, trading centers, and farming areas • Brick homes arranged in a grid-like pattern
The Huang He Valley • Home of the Chinese Civilization. • Farmers began raising pigs and growing grains Huang He Valley as 6000 B.C. • People live in walled cities or towns. • Culture discovers how to create Bronze in 1700 B.C. (better tools, weapons, and other goods) • A king rules the Huang He Valley and is assisted by the upper class.