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Core 5 Programme Green Radio – Towards Sustainable Wireless Networks May 2009 Peter Grant UoE and Board Member Steve McLaughlin UoE and Academic Co-ordinator Hamid Aghvami KCL and Board Member Simon Fletcher NEC and Industrial Steering Group Chair. Presentation Overview.
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Core 5 Programme Green Radio – Towards Sustainable Wireless Networks May 2009 Peter Grant UoE and Board Member Steve McLaughlin UoE and Academic Co-ordinator Hamid Aghvami KCL and Board Member Simon Fletcher NEC and Industrial Steering Group Chair
Presentation Overview • The Current Status on Cellular Systems • The Business Case for Green Radio • Defining the Green Radio Issues • The Mobile VCE Research Programme • Research Areas and Key Deliverables • Conclusions
Why Green Radio?Operator & Manufacturer Perspective • Increasing energy costs with higher base station site density and energy price trends • A typical UK mobile network consumes 40MW • Overall this is a small % of total UK energy consumption, but with huge potential to save energy in other industries • Energy cost and grid availability limit growth in emerging markets (high costs for diesel generators) • Corporate Responsibility targets set to reduce carbon emissions and environmental impacts of networks • Vodafone1 - “Group target to reduce CO2 emissions by 50% by 2020, from 2006/07 levels” • Orange2: “Reduce our greenhouse emissions per customer by 20% between 2006 and 2020” 1. http://www.vodafone.com/etc/medialib/attachments/cr_downloads.Par.25114.File.tmp/CR%20REPORT_UK-FINAL%20ONLINE_180908_V6.pdf 2. http://www.orange.com/en_EN/tools/boxes/documents/att00005072/CSR_report_2007.pdf
CO2 emissions per subscriber per year3 9kg CO2 2.6kg CO2 Operation 8.1kg CO2 Embodied energy 4.3kg CO2 Base station Mobile Where is the Energy Used? • For the operator, 57% of electricity use is in radio access • Operating electricity is the dominant energy requirement at base stations • For user devices, most of the energy used is due to manufacturing 3. Tomas Edler, Green Base Stations – How to Minimize CO2 Emission in Operator Networks, Ericsson, Bath Base Station Conference 2008
UK Network Consumption Source: CR review, Vodafone UK, Corporate Responsibility 2007/08
Retail Data Centre Core Transmission Mobile Switching Base Stations 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Cellular Network Power ConsumptionSummary (from previous pie chart) Source: Vodafone
Base Station Power Use @ 2003 H. Karl, “An overview of energy-efficiency techniques for mobile communication systems,” Telecommunication Networks Group, Technical University Berlin, Tech. Rep. TKN-03-XXX, September 2003. [Online]. Available: http://www-tkn.ee.tu-berlin.de/∼karl/WG7/AG7Mobikom-EnergyEfficiency-v1.0.pdf
Power Consumption Power Consumption per BS Now (Possible) Target (2010) GSM 800W 650W WCDMA 500W 300W Source: NSN
Energy Consumption • The Base Station is the most energy–intensive component of a 3G mobile network. • A typical 3G Base Station consumes about 500 W with a output power of ~40 W. This makes the average annual energy consumption of a BS around 4.5 MWh (which is lower than a GSM BS). • A 3G mobile network with 12,000 BSs will consume over 50 GWh p.a. This not only responsible for a large amount CO2 emission it also increases the system OPEX. • This is worse in China with 10-20 times number of mobile subscribers!
Other wireless comparisons • IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi laptop access are only 1 – 2% efficient when we compare radiated power to total required power load. • (Transmit power of 20 – 100 mW for an AC power drain of 2 – 8 W) • WWW.atheros.com/pt/whitepapers/atheros_power_whitepaper.pdf
Energy Consumption – The Challenge • Since 2006, the growth rate of data traffic on mobile networks has been approximately 400% p.a.. It is expected to grow at least the same rate in coming years. • This growth demands a much higher energy consumption than today. • The challenge is how to design future mobile networks to be more energy efficient to accommodate the extra traffic.
Traffic Diverging expectations for traffic and revenue growth Costs Data Voice Revenue Time Green Radio as an Enabler Trends: • Exponential growth in data traffic • Number of base stations / area increasing for higher capacity • Revenue growth constrained and dependent on new services Energy use cannot follow traffic growth without significant increase in energy consumption • Must reduce energy use per data bit carried Number of base stations increasing • Operating power per cell must reduce Green radio is a key enabler for cellular growth while guarding against increased environmental impact Traffic / revenue curve from “The Mobile Broadband Vision - How to make LTE a success”, Frank Meywerk, Senior Vice President Radio Networks, T-Mobile Germany, LTE World Summit, November 2008, London
2020 Vision Paper – The Challenge • The Mobile VCE Visions Group comprising global thoughts leaders in the industry articulated the need…. “Arguably what is needed are wireless access systems that can support multimedia service data rates attwo or three orders of magnitude lower transmission power than currently used. Performance of today’s radio access technologies is in fact already approaching the Shannon Bound – such an advance will not come simply from more traditional research on single aspects of the physical layer, but will require holistic, system-wide, breakthrough thinking that challenges basic assumptions” Mobile VCE consultation paper, “2020 Vision – Enabling the Digital Future” Dec’07 • Mobile VCE Green Radio programme formulated to: • Take forward existing research • Aim to achieve an international lead in this field
Broadband Traffic on Mobile Networks • Revenue increase is not in line with traffic growth* • Average annual increase in traffic: 400% • Average annual increase in revenue: 23% • With the launch of HSDPA and the introduction of flat-rate pricing, data traffic is increasing • Traffic is growing faster than the revenue increase • The biggest traffic growth is seen at operators whose data pricing is more aggressive than the average *Source: Stanley Chia, Workshop on “As the Internet takes to the air, do mobile revenue go sky high?,” IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, April 2008.
Possible Solutions Green Radio • Can we benefit from the use of the information below in the design of future mobile networks?: • Mobility pattern (location, speed and direction of mobile user) information • Characteristic of multimedia traffic (traffic classification) • Transmission power scaling (distribution) in order to use renewable energy for BSs.
Green Radio Scenarios Two Market Profiles: Developed World Developed Infrastructure Saturated Markets Quality of Service Key Issue Drive is to Reduce Costs Emerging Markets Less Established Infrastructure Rapidly Expanding Markets Large Geographical Areas Often no mains power supply – power consumption a major issue Green Radio MVCE ‘Book of Assumptions’: Defines cellular, enterprise & home scenarios To galvanise targeted innovations
Over a year, 1m2 solar panel produces ~400 kWh energy, or about 10% of a 3G macrocell BS requirement (in London, < 5%). • Note that we never recover the embodied or manufacturing energy! • A combination of solar & wind sources, in a good location may provide the energy requirement for a small (pico-femto) BS ?
Industry Subscription/Gvt funded Collaboration • Core 5 research programme, 2009 – 2012 targets: • Green Radio • Flexible Networks • User interactions
Mobile VCE Funding Model New Products, Services & Revenue Streams Seeds & Feedsin-houseR&D One-way Trapdoor UK Government Support Gov’t Funds - - - Members’ Subscriptions - - - Members’ Core Fund Core Programme Funding Industry led, University delivered World Class Research & Patents • Excellent financial gearing for Industry Members • Strengthens the UK research base, available to the global industry • Known, qualified, research staff who appreciate industry’s needs
ChairmanSimon Fletcher NEC Deputy Chairman Andy Jeffries Nortel GR Industrial Leadership Team • Deputy Chairman David Lister Vodafone Industry Steering Group – participants so far…
GR Academic Delivery Team Prof. Steve McLaughlin (Academic Co-ordinator) Dr. John Thompson Dr. Dave Laurenson Prof. Tim O'Farrell Dr. Pavel Loskot Dr. Jianhua He Prof. Joe McGeehan Dr. Simon Armour Dr. Kevin Morris Prof. Hamid Aghvami Dr. Mohammad Reza Nakhai Dr. Vasilis Friderikos
GR Programme Objectives • Strive to improve efficiency of base station operation with improved component designs: • Power amplifier • Power efficient processing, e.g. DSP • Sleep modes • Backhaul redesign • Improve overall system operation: • Multi-hop routing • Relaying • Improved resource allocation • Dynamic spectrum access
Architecture 2 PDRAs, 5 PhDs To identify a green network architecture - a low power wireless network & backhaul that still provides good quality of service Techniques 2 PDRAs, 7 PhDs To identify the best radio techniques across all layers of the protocol stack that collectively can achieve 100x power reduction Green Radio Programme Organisation Industry Steering Group Energy Focus Group Flexible Networks Program 2 Technical Work Areas - 48 Man Years
Target Innovations: Architecture • Establishing Baselines To develop a clear understanding of energy consumption in current networks and the network elements, base sites, mobiles, etc for the scenarios defined in the Book of Assumptions • Backhaul Options To determine the best backhaul strategy for a given architecture • Deployment ScenariosTo determine what is the optimum deployment scenario for a wide area network given a clearly defined energy efficiency metric
Architecture: Technical Approach • Energy Metrics & Models • Primary and derived energy metrics to accurately quantify consumption • Communications energy consumption models for the radio access network (RAN) architecture • Energy Efficient Architectures • For RAN technology, compare large versus small cell deployment • Assess scenarios for placement of relay nodes • Efficient backhaul in support of identified architectures • Multi-hop Routing • Bounding energy requirements by strict end-to-end QoS • Exploiting delay tolerant applications and user mobility for energy reduction • Frequency Management • Identification of energy efficient co-operative physical layer architecture using emerging information theory ideas to remove interference • Applying Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) to minimize energy consumption by utilising bands with low interference • Solar-powered relaying allocating resources to match combined traffic and weather patterns
Architecture:Energy Efficiency Analysis Macro Micro Pico Femto Step1: Large vs. small cells applying the energy metrics Step2: Overlay Source & Network Coding and/or Cooperative Networking Step3: Evaluate optimum cell size from the following perspectives……. RRM Packet scheduling, handover, power and load control BER/FER vs Eb/No Differentiated QoS, fast fading effects, UE speed, MIMO Link Budget Energy consumption is proportional to distance Mobility/Traffic Models User Equip (UE) movement, traffic types & mixes
Can We Reduce Power Consumption Through Delay-Tolerant Networking? • Conventional • Cellular 2. In-Building Relay 3. Multi-hop Relay 4. Heterogeneous Relay
Architecture 33 month Task: researchers split to 3 areas GR1-2 Performs Overall Architecture Assessment Selection of Key Metrics & Initial Results on Efficient Architectures 9 month Task: All researchers participate Energy Efficient Architectures 8.75 MY Key Metrics & Architecture 3.5 MY Multihop 6.25 MY Frequency Management 3.75 MY GR1-3 and 1-4 Address More Specific Issues
Target Innovations: Techniques Overall Base Station EfficiencyTechniques to deliver significant improvements in overall efficiency for base stations, measured as RF power out to total input power Improving the QoS/RF Power RatioReduce the required RF output power required from the base station whilst still maintaining the required QoS Optimization of a Limited Energy Budget Given a base station nominal daily energy requirement derived from renewable energy sources (e.g. 2.4 kWh - 100W x 24hrs) determine how this would be best used for communication Scaling of Energy Needs with Traffic Sleep mechanisms that deliver substantial reduction in power consumption for base stations with low loads and develop techniques that allow power consumption to scale with load
Techniques: Power Efficient Hardware • 3G Base station efficiency • Climate control 65% • Power supply 85% • PA / transceiver 45% • Feeder cables 50% • Advanced base station architectures • Multi-mode and multi-standard • Maximise equipment and base station re-use • Integration allows energy reductions • Masthead electronics avoids cable losses • Target > 20% overall efficiency • Advanced power amplifier techniques • Target: > 60% PA efficiency • Develop envelope tracking method Integrated remote radio antenna Baseline overall efficiency 12% • Masthead PA eliminates feeder loss • Integration avoids interconnect losses • Passive thermal cooling Hardware Integration & Advanced PA Techniques
Techniques: DSP and Radio Resource Management • Interference Minimisation and Cancellation • Making transmissions more robust to interference to reduce required transmit power levels • Peer-to-peer communications between terminals can be exploited to share information about signals and interference to improve decoding and suppress interference • RRM Techniques for Lower Power Consumption • Maximising power efficient utilisation of LTE RBS co-operation and collaboration support. • Robust Measurement reporting, Radio Bearer Configuration, Packet Scheduling, handover and Power and Load Control for energy efficient delivery • Novel Approaches • Network coding • Application of Sensor network techniques, cross layer approaches grounded in standards (LTE, WiMAX)
Identify Novel Approaches using standard RBS/AP as baseline to improve 9 month Task: Involves All researchers Techniques GR2-5 Allows for Top-Down “System” Perspective This task can vary in size according to results from GR2-1 Novel Techniques for Power Reduction ~ 4.25 MY Investigation & Evaluation 4.5 MY Resource Management 7 MY Efficient DSP 6.5 MY Efficient Hardware 5 MY GR2-2, 2-3 and 2-4 Address Techniques across Protocol Stack
Green Radio Deliverables • Year 1 • Workshop to discuss architecture metrics and promising techniques for power reduction • Executive Summary on energy and power efficiency metrics and tradeoffs • Year 2 • Poster day presenting key results to date • Reports on efficiency gains • Year 3 • Reports on Programme achievements for both Architectures and Techniques Work Packages • Executive summaries of all key outputs from the Programme
Our Process - engagement with Industrial Sponsors • Monthly Co-ordination Steering Group (CSG) meetings • Progress management (deliverables, patents, publications) • Internal and outreach event organisation • Quarterly Technical Steering Group (TSG) meetings • Meetings at which all Industrials have the opportunity to engage with the Researchers on the detail of their research results • Interdependent approach facilitated by well established MVCE processes with Core 5 enhancements • Encouraging exploration of synergies with Flexible Networks. Both programmes contain activities in… • Network coding, routing, adaptive and self-organisation • Webex – Internet-based interactions between Researchers and Industrials, especially valuable for overseas-based industrials • WiKi - promoting high awareness of leading edge of key radio access standards: LTE(-Advanced), 802.16 (WiMAX), 802.11 (Wi-Fi) and leading edge green technologies through the WiKi • Industrial Energy Focus Group leading the embodied energy debate • Open publication (after review), build patent portfolio for royalty free access by our sponsors plus external exploitation
Energy Focus Group Concept • Terms of Reference • Initially tightly coupled to Architecture Research Group • Evolution of targeted questions • Analysis abstraction for realistic industrial application • What ‘energy’ metrics do we use to ensure realistic configurations & architectures result Relate to Real World Book of Assumptions Real World Real World Metrics Metrics Metrics / Optimisation Targeted Questions Real World Costs Evaluation Approach Real World System Parameters Real World Constraints Problem Abstraction Energy Focus Group Architecture Study
Example Meetings Diary for 2009 • For our Members and Researchers • Education Day: 30th April • To brief the researchers on the state of the art in industry and bring everyone up to speed on the Programme. • Industry Quarterly Steering Group TSG#3: 2nd July • Metrics Workshop: 9th September • Review meeting for a key deliverable from the Architecture Research, all are welcome. • Industry Steering Group TSG#4: 1st October • Outreach Events • Event prior to WWRF: 4th May at FT-Orange, Paris • Support for Femto Forum Research Day: • Aligned with the Femtocells World Summit, June 23rd - 25th, London • Discussions ongoing with the Femtoforum.
Conclusions • Green technologies relevance to business and politics will only continue to increase, Green Radio offers timely Industry driven research. • Green Radio is a 48 man year programme run over 3 years that offers… • An in-depth and systematic study of architecture issues to identify trade-offs in energy efficient network design • Evaluation of Techniques across the protocol stack to select most promising approaches to reduce power. • Green Radio will provide insights of value to… • Operators considering the impact of Green for future networks deployments • Equipment Vendors for identification of key techniques enabling green solutions.
Conclusions • Growth in data transmission requirements for mobile broadband will not bring major revenue increase. • Every industry has published CO2 reduction targets and the mobile and IT communities are not exempt. • Power drain in base-station or access point is the major issue in many wireless systems. • Green Radio promised to deliver benefit to the Cellular network Operators via the equipment supply chain vendors. • We plan to research and investigate changes to the system architecture and develop advanced networking techniques to deliver these future more efficient Green Radio systems.
Thank you ! For further information please contact: Simon Fletcher E-mail: Simon.Fletcher@EU.NEC.COM Tel: +44 1372 381824 or Steve McLaughlin Steve.McLaughlin@ed.ac.uk +44 131 650 5578 Further information on MobileVCE contact: Dr Walter Tuttlebee, E-mail: email@example.com Tel: +44 1256 338604 WWW: www.mobilevce.com