Cognitive Theory • Bruner & Ausubel • Meaningful learning • Discovery learning • Advanced organizers • Problem Solving • How many M&M’s are in the jar? • Transfer of Learning • Positive, negative, and zero transfer • Specific and general transfer • Metacognition • Being aware of how you learn • Formulating questions as a learning strategy
PROBLEM SOLVING The identification and application of knowledge and skills that result in goal attainment.
CONSTRUCTIVISM Constructivism is the view that meaningful learning is the active creation of knowledge structures, rather than a mere transferring of objective knowledge from one person to another. This views holds that meaningful learning occurs when students have to use previously learned knowledge and skills to solve realistic problems in a realistic context.
JEROME BRUNER Meaningful Learning occurs when students are permitted to make their own discoveries. Structure understanding the basic or fundamental ideas of a subject and how they relate to one another. Discovery Learning discover how ideas relate to each other and to existing knowledge. Bruner argues that teachers should confront children with problems and help them seek solutions either on their own or in a group discussion.
DAVID AUSUBEL Expository Teaching information should be organized and stated in such a way that can be easily related to students' existing knowledge schemes. Meaningful Reception Learning integrate new ideas into existing knowledge schemes.
Transfer Learning Transfer learning occurs when the learning of new information or skills is influenced by previously learned information or skills. During this process POSITIVE TRANSFER - previous learning makes later learning easier.
Doll Studies I. Original Study – Kenneth and Mamie Clark * Conducted in the 1940’s in the United States * Study consisted of giving young children the choice between a black or a white doll. * 67% of the black children chose white dolls * Results showed the importance of building an ethnic identity in children * Results indicated that black students’ preferences for white dolls demonstrated their low self-esteem * Used by Thurgood Marshall in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 by Supreme Court * Contributed to the civil rights movement through awareness of ethnic identity II. Updated Doll Study Based on Clark’s Research - Darelene Powell-Hobson * Conducted in 1985 in the United States * 65% of the black children chose white dolls out of 155 preschool students III. Updated Doll Study Based on Clark’s Research – Sharon McNichol * Conducted in 1980’s in Trinidad * 75% of children chose white dolls out of 144 preschool students IV. UHCL EDUC 4130 Doll Study * Conducted on March 19, 1998 at Houston Elementary School * Grades Pre-K through First grade * Nationalities included African American, Caucasian, Mexican American, and Asian students * 43% of the children chose white dolls out of 37 students * Results indicated the following influenced the selection process based on the children’s responses to the question of why they selected that particular doll: * Nationality of present or past teachers * Resemblance to them or their mothers * Physical appearance of the dolls Conclusion: These studies prove that it is important to build cultural diversity in children of all ethnicity to decrease low self-esteem.
References http://www.daily.umn.edu/gopherarchives/1995/01/30/Classic_studies_on_kids_indicate_facts_about_race http://www.unc.edu/depts/cmse/pre_college/self.html http://www.mankind.org/ss2.htm http://www.edweek.org/ew/vol-07/07270016.h07 http://www.upress.virginia.edu/titles/MACA.html http://www.umn.edu/irp/forums.htm http://family.disney.com/Categories/Learning/Features/family_1996_11/denv/denv199611_adoption/