COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY & SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
COGNITIVE (thinking) LEARNING – pg. 205-206 • Tolman’s Maze-Running Rats • Kohler’s Smart Chimps • Seligman’s Depressed Dogs
Observational Learning • Also called: Social Learning Theory • Different take on learning: We not only learn through direct experience, but also by observing and imitating others (through modeling). • Not simple, automatic, requires attention & sometimes motivation
Bandura OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING THEORY
Observational Learning How does social learning theory differ from classical conditioning and operant conditioning ……….. ?
ALBERT BANDURA “What people think, believe and feel affects how they behave. The natural and extrinsic effects of their actions, in turn, partly determine their thought patterns and affective reactions.”
SKINNER Environmental Determinism BANDURA Reciprocal Determinism
RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM Human development reflects an interaction among an “active” (thinking)person, behavior, and the environment. A person is not solely shaped by the environment. The links among these are BIDIRECTIONAL. Any one can influence the other.
PERSON BEHAVIOR ENVIRONMENT
SELF-EFFICACY Children's feelings about their abilities are a better predictor of success than are their actual abilities.
MODELING The process of learning by watching and repeating a behavior. This explains the learning of complex behavior in one or a few trials. This process implies cognition since we must remember what we saw and then repeat it.
Four Conditions for Effective Modeling to Occur • AttentionThe observer must attend to the relevant characteristics of the model. • Retention The observer must encode verbal and/or visual representations of the model. • Motor Reproduction The observer must be physically able to reproduce the behavior of the model. • MotivationThe observer must want to perform the observed behavior.
Types of Models • Live A real person in the presence of the observer • Symbolic An “image” of a real person (TV, movies, etc) or character (Superman, Harry Potter, etc) (Bobo doll experiments) • VerbalWritten instructions or descriptions of how to act
Observational Learning 4. How does social learning theory differ from classical conditioning and operant conditioning ……….. ?