Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Table of Contents – pages iii PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Table of Contents – pages iii

Table of Contents – pages iii

164 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Table of Contents – pages iii

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Table of Contents – pages iii Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

  2. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

  3. Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

  4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii

  5. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

  6. Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

  7. Unit Overview – pages 366-367 Change Through Time The History of Life The Theory of Evolution Primate Evolution Organizing Life’s Diversity

  8. Chapter 15The Theory of Evolution 15.1:Natural Selection and the Evidence for Evolution 15.1:Section Check 15.2:Mechanisms of Evolution 15.2:Section Check Chapter 15Summary Chapter 15Assessment Chapter Contents – page ix

  9. Chapter Intro-page 392 What You’ll Learn You will analyze the theory of evolution. You will compare and contrast the processes of evolution.

  10. 15.1 Section Objectives – page 393 Section Objectives: • Summarize Darwin’s theory of natural selection. • Explain how the structural and physiological adaptations of organisms relate to natural selection. • Distinguish among the types of evidence for evolution.

  11. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Charles Darwin and Natural Selection • The modern theory of evolution is the fundamental concept in biology. • Recall that evolution is the change in populations over time.

  12. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Fossils shape ideas about evolution • When geologists provided evidence indicating that Earth was much older than many people had originally thought, biologists began to suspect that species change over time, or evolve. • Many explanations about how species evolve have been proposed, but the ideas first published by Charles Darwin are the basis of modern evolutionary theory.

  13. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin on HMS Beagle • It took Darwin years to develop his theory of evolution. • He began in 1831 at age 22 when he took a job as a naturalist on the English ship HMS Beagle, which sailed around the world on a five-year scientific journey.

  14. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin on HMS Beagle

  15. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin on HMS Beagle • As the ship’s naturalist, Darwin studied and collected biological and fossil specimens at every port along the route. • His studies provided the foundation for his theory of evolution by natural selection.

  16. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin in the Galápagos • On the Galápagos Islands, Darwin studied many species of animals and plants that are unique to the islands but similar to species elsewhere. • These observations led Darwin to consider the possibility that species can change over time.

  17. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin continues his studies • For the next two decades, Darwin worked to refine his explanation for how species change over time. • English economist Thomas Malthus had proposed an idea that Darwin modified and used in his explanation. • Malthus’s idea was that the human population grows faster than Earth’s food supply.

  18. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin continues his studies How did this help Darwin? • He knew that many species produce large numbers of offspring. • He also knew that such species had not overrun Earth.

  19. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin continues his studies • He realized that individuals struggle to compete in changing environmental conditions. • Only some individuals survive the competition and produce offspring.

  20. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin continues his studies • Darwin observed that the traits of individuals vary in populations. Variations are then inherited. • Breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits is called artificial selection. • Darwin hypothesized that there was a force in nature that worked like artificial selection.

  21. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin explains natural selection • Natural selection is a mechanism for change in populations. • It occurs when organisms with favorable variations survive, reproduce, and pass their variations to the next generation. • Organisms without these variations are less likely to survive and reproduce.

  22. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin explains natural selection • As a result, each generation consists largely of offspring from parents with these variations that aid survival. • Alfred Russell Wallace, another British naturalist, reached a similar conclusion.

  23. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin explains natural selection • Darwin proposed the idea of natural selection to explain how species change over time. • In nature, organisms produce more offspring than can survive.

  24. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin explains natural selection • In any population, individuals have variations. Fishes, for example, may differ in color, size, and speed.

  25. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin explains natural selection • Individuals with certain useful variations, such as speed, survive in their environment, passing those variations to the next generation.

  26. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Darwin explains natural selection • Over time, offspring with certain variations make up most of the population and may look entirely different from their ancestors.

  27. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Interpreting evidence after Darwin • Volumes of scientific data have been gathered as evidence for evolution since Darwin’s time. • Much of this evidence is subject to interpretation by different scientists. • One of the issues is that evolutionary processes are difficult for humans to observe directly.

  28. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Interpreting evidence after Darwin • The short scale of human life spans makes it difficult to comprehend evolutionary processes that occur over millions of years. • Almost all of today’s biologists accept the theory of evolution by natural selection.

  29. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Adaptations: Evidence for Evolution • Recall that an adaptation is any variation that aids an organism’s chances of survival in its environment. • Darwin’s theory of evolution explains how adaptations may develop in species.

  30. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • According to Darwin’s theory, adaptations in species develop over many generations. • Learning about adaptations in mole-rats can help you understand how natural selection has affected them.

  31. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • The ancestors of today’s common mole-rats probably resembled African rock rats.

  32. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • Some ancestral rats may have avoided predators better than others because of variations such as the size of teeth and claws.

  33. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • Ancestral rats that survived passed their variations to offspring. • After many generations, most of the population’s individuals would have these adaptations.

  34. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • Over time, natural selection produced modern mole-rats. • Their blindness may have evolved because vision had no survival advantage for them.

  35. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • Some other structural adaptations are subtle. • Mimicry is a structural adaptation that enables one species to resemble another species.

  36. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • In one form of mimicry, a harmless species has adaptations that result in a physical resemblance to a harmful species. • Predators that avoid the harmful looking species also avoid the similar-looking harmless species.

  37. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • In another form of mimicry, two or more harmful species resemble each other. • For example, yellow jacket hornets, honeybees, and many other species of wasps all have harmful stings and similar coloration and behavior.

  38. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • Predators may learn quickly to avoid any organism with their general appearance.

  39. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Structural adaptations arise over time • Another subtle adaptation is camouflage, an adaptation that enables species to blend with their surroundings. • Because well-camouflaged organisms are not easily found by predators, they survive to reproduce.

  40. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Physiological adaptations can develop rapidly • In general, most structural adaptations develop over millions of years. • However, there are some adaptations that evolve much more rapidly. • For example, do you know that some of the medicines developed during the twentieth century to fight bacterial diseases are no longer effective?

  41. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Physiological adaptations can develop rapidly Non-resistant bacterium Antibiotic Resistant bacterium The bacteria in a population vary in their ability to resist antibiotics. When the population is exposed to an antibiotic, only the resistant bacteria survive. The resistant bacteria live and produce more resistant bacteria.

  42. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Physiological adaptations can develop rapidly Non-resistant bacterium Antibiotic Resistant bacterium • Today, penicillin no longer affects as many species of bacteria because some species have evolved physiological adaptations to prevent being killed by penicillin.

  43. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Physiological adaptations can develop rapidly • Physiological adaptations are changes in an organism’s metabolic processes. • In addition to species of bacteria, scientists have observed these adaptations in species of insects and weeds that are pests.

  44. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Other Evidence for Evolution • Physiological resistance in species of bacteria, insects, and plants is direct evidence of evolution. • However, most of the evidence for evolution is indirect, coming from sources such as fossils and studies of anatomy, embryology, and biochemistry.

  45. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Fossils • Fossils are an important source of evolutionary evidence because they provide a record of early life and evolutionary history.

  46. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Fossils • Although the fossil record provides evidence that evolution occurred, the record is incomplete. • Although paleontologists do not have fossils for all the changes that have occurred, they can still understand the overall picture of how most groups evolved.

  47. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Fossils • Fossils are found throughout the world. • As the fossil record becomes more complete, the sequences of evolution become clearer. • For example, you can see how paleontologists have charted the evolutionary path that led to today’s camel after piecing together fossil skulls, teeth, and limb bones.

  48. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Fossils Camel Evolution Oligocene 33 million years ago Miocene 23 million years ago Eocene 54 million years ago Paleocene 65 million years ago Age Present Organism Skull and teeth Limb bones

  49. Section 15.1 Summary – pages 393-403 Anatomy • Structural features with a common evolutionary origin are called homologous structures. • Homologous structures can be similar in arrangement, in function, or in both. Crocodile forelimb Bird wing Whale forelimb