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The following power point training presentations must be viewed at PowerPoint Presentation
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The following power point training presentations must be viewed at

The following power point training presentations must be viewed at

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The following power point training presentations must be viewed at

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Presentation Transcript

  1. The following power point training presentations must be viewed at unit training and/or under the supervision of an OSRT Officer. Members viewing the presentations must sign a OSRT sign in sheet. The completed sign in sheet must be submitted to the OSRT Planning (Training) Section to receive credit for the training.

  2. Introduction to Search and Rescue Course developed by Richard Vasquez

  3. Introduction to Search and Rescue The materials contained in this training are intended to equip the person with the skills needed to function as a introductory “Basic” searcher level. This is comparable to the SAR Technician III. The assumption is made that the person has mastered those Basic Skills that are also included in the 24 hour civilian version of this training.

  4. Introduction to Search and Rescue Basic Skills not Included: Survival skills Improvising Outdoor & personal equipment Land navigation Ropes and knots Helicopter operations

  5. What is Search and Rescue? • Long hard hours of physically demanding • Fatigue • Frustration • Anxiety • Sweat • Deep inner feeling of satisfaction for a job well done

  6. “Search and Rescue is finding and aiding people in distress, relieving pain and suffering” Fundamentals of Search and Rescue

  7. “Search and Rescue (SAR) is the use of available resources to assist persons and property in potential or actual distress.” National SAR Plan

  8. SEARCH IS ABOUT THE SUBJECT • The focus of SAR is NOT • Heroism • Money • Fame • If you are looking for one of these, you do not belong here!

  9. L.A.S.T. • L – Locate • Find the subject • A – Access • Get to the victim; begin “size up” • S – Stabilize • Mediate any life threat • T – Transport • Get the victim to a safe area

  10. Location • Two part function • Getting in • Locating the subject • Assessing the route as you go • Locating hazards, extrication friendly routes, shelter sites in the event immediate extrication is not available • Getting out • Communicating your location to Search Ops so other rescue personnel can locate you and aid in extrication

  11. ACCESS • Getting access to the subject • Conducting a “Size-up” • Victim’s general condition • Immediate life threats • Hazards to the subject • Hazards to the rescuers

  12. STABILIZATION • Providing medical stabilization • Generally, should be done prior to transportation • Exceptions are few • May require special skills • Medical Knowledge and skills • Rope rescue • Extrication

  13. TRANSPORT • Getting the patient to a safe area • Subject “Packaging” • To facilitate safe extrication of the subject • Ongoing assessment and treatment of the subject as needed • Mode of transportation • Based upon weather, type and nature of the injuries • Overall urgency • Terrain • Available Resources

  14. COMPONENTS OF SAR • Preplanning • Notification • Planning and Strategy • Tactics and Operations • Suspension • Critique

  15. PREPLANNING • Pre-incident preparation • Technically ends upon initial notification of an incident • Enhances safety of all operations • Training • Equipment • Organization • Management

  16. NOTIFICATION • Critical component • May come in a variety of forms • Phone call • Radio report • SOS or “May Day” • FAA report of a downed aircraft • Planning of the incident begins

  17. PLANNING AND STRATEGY • Every phase begins with situation specific planning and strategy • Investigation • Timely gathering of accurate facts • List of options and contingencies is developed • Determination of search urgency • Based upon many factors • Establishment of goals and objectives

  18. TACTICS AND OPERATIONS • Implementation of plans • Tactical assignments are made • Passive • Investigation • Confinement • Attraction • Active • Field searching • Tracking • Dog Teams

  19. SUSPENSION • Once the victim is located, the search is suspended and the access phase can commence • Mission suspension occurs when the incident is “called off” • Demobilization of resources to “Ready Status” • Dismantling facilities • Completion of documentation • Returning to service

  20. CRITIQUE • Every incident should be critiqued • Formal • Every participant involved • Structured meeting • Informal • Brief discussion of events • Evaluation and learning • What went well • What can be improved upon • Overall lessons were learned

  21. SAR in the U.S. Who are the searchers?

  22. National Search Plan • Drafted and adopted in 1986 • Specifies federal roles and responsibilities • Is the basis for the National Search and Rescue Manual (Federal agencies) • Search and rescue organization • Resources • Methods • Techniques

  23. Overall Objective of the plan: To provide a cooperative network between SAR organizations and resources coordinated by a single federal agency.

  24. Appropriate agreements are made and signed between federal and state SAR organizations. • Local and state government agencies are expected to assume responsibilities for their initial SAR response. • Federal role is one of coordination and intermediary between local, state and federal agencies

  25. PARTICIPATING FEDERAL AGENCIES • Department of Transportation (DOT) • Department of Defense (DOD) • Department of Commerce (DOC) • Federal Communications Commission (FCC) • Department of the Interior (DOI) • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

  26. United States Air Force • Operates the Air Force Rescue Coordination Center (AFRCC) • THE federal agency responsible for coordination of SAR activity in the 48 contiguous states (Inland Region) • Coordinates both military and civilian personnel • 24/7 manning with trained SAR personnel

  27. U.S. Coast Guard • Responsible for the Maritime Region • U.S. waters (navigable) • Hawaii • Specific areas of Canada (south of Alaska) • High Seas

  28. Federal Aviation Administration • Monitors and follows aircraft filing flight plans in the inland region. • Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC) • Flight Service Stations (FSS) • Works closely with AFRCC

  29. Civil Air Patrol • Provides the majority of response to downed or missing aircraft situations throughout the U.S. • Provide resources to search management • mission coordinators, • aircraft pilots and observers • Ground search teams • Base camp support • Communications networks

  30. State SAR Authorities • Emergency Management • Provides one-stop-shopping for resources • Provides coordination among local, state and federal agencies • Can provide contact information for specialized resources

  31. Local SAR Authorities • Authority having jurisdiction • Usually law enforcement • Every search is considered a criminal investigation until proved otherwise • State and Federal lands are governed by the agency delegated by either state or federal agency having jurisdiction • May be delegated to the Fire Service • Search is generally considered a life threat • Unified command is common

  32. Would you be a good search professional? Let’s find out…

  33. “Just the P.H.A.C.K.S” • P - Professional • Using a professional manner • H - Humble • Don’t talk about doing a good job…do it • A - Able • Capable of performing physically and mentally • C - Competent • Well trained; properly qualified • K - Knowledgeable • Both experienced and learned • S - Solicitous • Concerned, attentive and eager

  34. Priorities in SAR • Yourself • Companions • The victim • Without you and your fellow rescuers, the victim may not survive • You must be skillfully trained • Without assistance you may not be able to carry out the mission • If fellow rescuers are in need of your help, until they are cared for, you will not be focused

  35. Risk Analysis • Risk verses benefit • Urgency • Training • Proficiency • Weakest Link • Knowing your limitations is probably the #1 life saver in SAR • Not knowing your limitations is the #1 killer


  37. Fitness • Mental Fitness • Physical and MENTAL fitness are integral to the primary SAR objective of working for the victim • PMA - Positive Mental Attitude • Admit your limitations

  38. Incident Command • A standardized emergency management system • Resulted from interagency forest firefighting • Provides a logical approach for the delivery of coordinated emergency services • Provides personnel accountability

  39. ICS Requirements • Must be flexible to meet the needs of incidents of any kind & size • Must be suitable for day to day operations as well as for large incidents • Must be standardized among agencies to enhance interagency operations • Must be cost effective

  40. Who’s in charge?? • The Incident Commander (IC) = (OIC) • The authority having jurisdiction or his/her designee • May be local law enforcement • May be local fire department • May be the park service • May be a state or federal agency

  41. Management Functions Command-Incident Commander • Operations • Planning • Logistics ` • Finance • NOTE: This is not an exact 1:1 comparison of duties. Some duties handled by in one function area might be split by their counterpart.

  42. Command • Sets objectives and priorities • Has overall responsibility for the incident • Designates the command post • Appoints command staff • May be a unified command

  43. Operations • Conducts tactical operations to carry out the plan • Develops the tactical objectives • Develops tactical organization • Directs all resources

  44. Planning • Develops the Incident Action Plan to accomplish the objectives • Collects and evaluates information • Maintains resource status

  45. Logistics • Provides support to meet incident needs • Provides resources • Provides all other services needed to support the incident

  46. Finance / Administration • Monitors costs related to the incident • Provides accounting • Facilitates procurement • Conducts time recording • Conducts cost analysis

  47. Command Staff • Liaison Officer • Primary contact between the IC and other agencies • Safety Officer • Monitors safety conditions and assures personnel safety • Information Officer • Serves as the point of contact for the media or other organizations seeking incident information

  48. Unity of Command Every individual has a designated supervisor

  49. Unified Command The process which allows all agencies who have jurisdictional or functional responsibility for the incident to jointly develop a common set of incident objectives and strategies without giving up agency authority, responsibility or accountability