Building a Framework of Supports to Effectively Address Behavior 2013 Statewide CD Conference August 14, 2013
Setting Expectations • Clear, observable, consistent • Model • Acknowledge • Observe, practice, and generalize • Use your own behavior for teachable moments • Embrace uniqueness • Share ownership • Maintain effort
Establishing Routines • Be predictable. • Be explicit. • Create a sense of shared values, common experience, and sense of belonging. • Give the brain the routines it craves. • Be intentional. • Encourage collaboration. • Recognize the success of individuals in contributing to the success of the whole.
Engagement most highly related to goal setting and self-regulation. • Mediators of learning: boundary expansion, personalization, empowerment, collaboration, constructivism, active participation, and authenticity. • Shared ownership increases student engagement and reduces discipline issues. • Students invest themselves when educational experiences have personal meaning. • Students as partners in creating and sustaining long-term behavior change. • Teacher as facilitator. Increasing Engagement
We can’t make a student learn, behave, or do anything else we want them to do. We can only set the conditions for their success.
What are the strongest factors that influence student achievement? • Home background • Parent support and expectations • Student-teacher relationships • Student attitude • Motivation • Working conditions of the school • Student’s innate abilities
What are the strongest factors that influence student achievement? • Home background • Parent support • Student-teacher relationships • Student attitude • Motivation • Working conditions of the school • Student’s innate abilities
Think about the relationships we build with students when this is what they experience in our classrooms…
Essential Characteristics ofSelf-Determined Behavior: • Choice-making skills • Decision-making skills • Problem-solving skills • Goal-setting and attainment skills
Essential Characteristics ofSelf-Determined Behavior: • Independence, risk-taking and safety skills • Self-observation, evaluation and reinforcement skills • Self-instruction skills
Essential Characteristics ofSelf-Determined Behavior: • Self-advocacy and leadership skills • Internal locus of control • Positive attributions of efficacy and outcome expectancy • Self-awareness/Self-knowledge
What is PBIS ? “PBIS” is a research-based systems approach designed to enhance the capacity of schools to… • effectively educate all students, including students with challenging social behaviors • adopt & sustain the use of effective instructional practices
Trends in Discipline Practices Most Effective • Proactive school-wide discipline systems • Social skills instruction in natural environment • Academic/curricular restructuring • Behaviorally based interventions • Early screening and identification of antisocial behavior patterns (Biglan, 1995; Gottfredson, 1997; Colvin, et al., 1993; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Mayer, 1995; Sugai & Horner, 1994; Tolan& Guerra, 1994; Walker, et al., 1995; Walker, et al., 1996) Least Effective • Punishment (when used too often) • Exclusion • Counseling (as a reactive strategy) (Gottfredson, 1997) 19
PBIS: The Big Ideas Decide what is important for students to know (behavioralexpectations - local standards for student behavior, reading & math) Teach what is important for students to know (high quality instruction= differentiation) Acknowledge students for demonstrating skills Keep track of how students are doing ( data, data, data) Make changes according to the results (interventions at 3 tiers-give kids what they need)
School-Wide Systems for Student Success:A Response to Intervention (RtI) Model Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions 1-5% • Individual students • Assessment-based • High intensity • 1-5% Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions • Individual students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • 5-15% Tier 2/Secondary Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small group interventions • Some individualizing • Tier 2/Secondary Interventions 5-15% • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Small group interventions • Some individualizing • Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90% • All students • Preventive, proactive • 80-90% Tier 1/Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 15, 2008. Adapted from “What is school-wide PBS?” OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Accessed at http://pbis.org/school-wide.htm
Think, Musical Pair, Share • Think of a way to differentiate the lesson • Find a partner when the music stops • Share your idea
A Student’s Snapshot Math Science (Intervention) Public Speaking Art, Physical Education Strengths & Challenges Hallway Behavior Attendance Music Label Behaviors... Not People
Supporting Systemic Change • Those involved in the school must share : • a common dissatisfaction with the processes and outcomes of the current system • a vision of what they would like to see replace it • Problems occur when the system lacks the knowledge of how to initiate change or when there is disagreement about how change should take place
Family Involvement or Engagement in a PBIS School? Family involvement is often more of a “doing to,” while engagement is a “doing with.” Involvement – schools tend to lead with their mouth – generally telling family members what to do Engagement – schools lead with their ears – listening to family members’ ideas, and eliciting what they have found works best with their children Larry Ferlazzo, Education Week, March 2012
Components of Family Engagement • Family member/parent academic aspirations and expectations for children • Family member/parent-child communication about school • Home structure that supports behavior and learning • Family member/parent participation and connection in school activities
Remember • PBIS involves all of us • we decide what our focus will be • we decide how we will monitor • we decide what our goals are • we decide what we’ll do to get there • we evaluate our progress • we decide whether to keep going or change
What is Function Based Thinking? …giving attention to the environmentwhere the behavior occurs. …placing emphasis on the “purpose” or function of the behavior. …giving attention to implementers (adult behaviors). …redesigningteaching and learning environments. …focusing in onteachingbehavior expectations.
Problem/Desired Behavior Obtain/Get Something Escape/Avoid Something Stimulation/ Sensory Tangible/ Activity Social Adult Peer What is “function”? BREAK
Is conducting an FBA considered part of an evaluation? The IEP Team determines if the FBA is necessary as part of the evaluation in order to determine whether the child has a disability or the extent of special education and related services that are needed. If the IEP Team determines the FBA is part of the evaluation, parent consent must be obtained, as is the case for all data collected in the evaluation process.
Reasons Why I Do What I Do • It is easy • It is a habit • It is immediate • It is rewarding • It has worked in the past • It is part of my neurology • It is how I know how to communicate • It is how I know how to cope with a situation
Other Factors That Contribute to My Behavior Setting Events • Sleep / Exhaustion • Food / Diet / Water • Interest • Pain or Medical Needs
A simplified example… Consequences Antecedents Behavior Student is asked to complete written work, such as assignments or tests in general education classroom. Student refuses to complete, and instead gets out of seat to talk with others.
The Process for Conducting a FBA • Describe the behaviors that are interfering with learning in concrete and observable terms. • Collect data from multiple sources to measure the challenging behavior to establish a baseline. • Analyze the data and develop a hypothesis that describes why the behavior is occurring, a replacement behavior that leads to the same outcomes, and the conditions that will make it more likely to occur. • Next Step: Use this data to develop a Behavior Intervention Plan.
Functional behavior assessments should look for patterns to determine the conditions under which the behavior is likely to occur: • When does (and doesn’t) the behavior occur? • Who does the behavior occur with? Who doesn’t it occur with? • For how long does the behavior occur? • What happens before behavior? (antecedent) • What happens after behavior? (consequence/outcome)
Scatter Plots E = Engaged/working A = Using angry words C = Using calming strategies
Scatter Plots E = Engaged/working A = Using angry words C = Using calming strategies