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Agenda

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  1. Agenda • Bell ringer • Go over class work • Review Alexander the Great • Rome (to Principate) • Closure

  2. Review • How did Alexander the Great promote Hellenistic culture throughout his empire?

  3. Unit 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies (600 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.)

  4. Essential learning: rome’s creation of a mediterranean empire (753 BCE-600 CE)

  5. Objectives • Assess how Rome’s geographic features contributed to its rise to empire. • Describe the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic. • Assess the reasons for Rome’s expansion. • Describe the social changes that took place throughout Rome’s expansion. • Describe government during the Principate.

  6. Essential Questions • How did Rome’s geographic features contribute to its rise to empire? • What was the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic? • What were the reasons for Rome’s expansion? • What social changes took place throughout Rome’s expansion? • What kind of government existed in Rome during the Principate?

  7. Where is Italy?

  8. Target: Geography • Central location in the Mediterranean Sea • Began in central Italy. • Fertile farmland. • Low mountains – few natural barriers to expansion • Well forested, northwest rich in metals. • Navigable rivers.

  9. Target: The Republic (753-31 BCE) • 507 BCE– Senate instituted a republic • Government • Assembly • Male citizens, wealthy votes counted more • Two consuls presided, commanded army, chosen annually • Senate – real center of power, life terms • Advised kings and Consuls, then made policy and governed • Dictator – up to 6 months

  10. Society • Conflict of Orders • Inequalities between patricians (landowning upper class) and plebeians (farmers, merchants, traders) • Twelve Tables (450 BCE) – written laws prevented arbitrary judicial decisions • Creation of tribunes – officials drawn from non-elite classes, could veto actions of the Assembly

  11. Twelve Tables • Table I mandates that when a person is accused of something, both accused and accuser must be present at a hearing or trial on the matter. • Table III gives debtors 30 days to pay off a debt. • Table IV makes a man's will binding. • Table VIII lists specific punishments for certain crimes. Most importantly, it says that a person shown to have lied in court will be put to death. • Table IX specifies capital punishment for judges who have taken bribes and for people who have committed treason. • Table XI prohibits a plebeian from marrying a patrician • (http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/twelvetables.htm)

  12. Family – several living generations, domestic slaves • Paterfamilias had absolute authority • Patron/client relationships • Women played no public role • Could not own property or represent herself legally • Eventually more personal protection and economic freedom

  13. Polytheistic religion • Numina – invisible forces • Other gods more important (Jupiter, Mars) • Paxdeorum (“peace of the gods”) • Took over the myths attached to Greek gods

  14. Target: Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean • Potential reasons for expansion • Greed and aggressiveness • Consuls – one year to gain military glory • Defense

  15. Well-disciplined, well-trained army • Male citizens with specified amount of land • Treated conquered people fairly • Often granted some or all privileges of Roman citizenship • Conquered lands supplied soldiers and taxes • Cooperative groups given more autonomy

  16. Punic Wars • Rome vs. Carthage • Hannibal • Third Punic War – Rome destroyed Carthage, took slaves • Senators sent as governor to each province annually – defended, oversaw tax collection, decided legal cases.

  17. Target: Failure of the Republic and Transition to Empire • Wealth – upper classes • Farmers replaced by latifundia (“broad estates”) • Cheap slave labor = peasants lived in poverty in cities • Fewer peasant farmers = fewer military men, propertyless men began to serve • 88-31 BCE – series of ambitious men commanded armies loyal to them

  18. Julius Caesar took control • Reforms made him popular • Assassinated by members of the Senate

  19. Target: The Roman Principate (31 BCE-330 CE) • Octavian (63 BCE-14 CE) • Fundamentally changed realities of power • Expanded territory • Allied himself with the equites, well-to-do Italian merchants and landowners

  20. After Augustus, the Senate confirmed emperors, but in reality chosen by armies • By 100 CE, emperors hand-picked a successor • Future emperors exercised authority more blatantly

  21. Law • Emperors were major source • Class of legal experts studied and organized • Property and rights of individuals • Foundation of European law

  22. Rural Rome • 80% farmed • Little contact with government • Tenant farmers cultivated land in return for portion of crops • Urban Rome • Wealthy in elegant townhouses, poor in crowded slums

  23. Commerce • Some urban Romans rich • Helped by the paxromana (“Roman peace”), increased trade • Romanization and citizenship • Spread of Latin language and Roman culture • Citizenship gradually granted to those outside Italy

  24. Essential Questions • How did Rome’s geographic features contribute to its rise to empire? • What was the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic? • What were the reasons for Rome’s expansion? • What social changes took place throughout Rome’s expansion? • What kind of government existed in Rome during the Principate?

  25. Agenda

  26. Review • How did Rome’s geographic features contribute to its rise to empire? • What was the structure of Rome’s government during the Republic? • What were the reasons for Rome’s expansion? • What social changes took place throughout Rome’s expansion? • What kind of government existed in Rome during the Principate?

  27. Objectives • Describe the rise of and major beliefs of Christianity. • Describe the achievements attained by Rome during the PaxRomana. • Evaluate the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire.

  28. Essential Questions • What are the major beliefs of Christianity and how did it expand under the Roman Empire? • What achievements did Rome attain during the PaxRomana? • Why did the Roman Empire fall?

  29. Target: The Rise of Christianity • Romans conquered Jewish homeland of Judea in 6 CE • Roman governors caused resentment • Jews waited for the Messiah

  30. Jesus • Called himself the son of God • Believed in the Jewish idea of one god, accepted 10 Commandments • Claimed he was "Christ”

  31. Caught the attention of the Jewish authorities • Crucified. • His followers, Apostles, spread teachings.

  32. Christianity grew for more than 200 years • Many women, slaves, and urban poor were first converts • Monotheistic – refusal to worship the emperor seen as disloyalty, persecuted by Roman officials • Holy book – The Bible

  33. Target: PaxRomana (27 BCE- 180 CE) • Expansion of Roman Empire resulted inblending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures (Greco-Roman civilization)

  34. Examples of Roman Achievements • Adapted the realistic Hellenistic style of statues • Architecture • Over 250,000 miles of road • Also had bridges, harbors, and aqueducts • Influenced laws in Europe and America.

  35. The Pantheon

  36. aqueducts

  37. Roman Mosaics

  38. Why is Windsor a good district?

  39. What if… • All districts in the surrounding area join the district, but only Mr. Andrews is the superintendent? • What issues do you foresee becoming a problem? • How do you solve these problems?

  40. Target: Fall of the Roman Empire • Causes of the fall of Rome • Taxes too high • Many corrupt people in government • Poor farmers left land for protection of stronger landowners • People become lazy • Roman army lacks discipline, Romans forced to hire foreign soldiers to defend borders • Barbarian invasions