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Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System
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Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System

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  1. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? I. Exocrine vs. Endocrine glands A. Exocrine - have ducts (tubes made of cells) that carry secretion products to an outside surface Ex. Sweat (eccrine), sebaceous, mammary, digestive (pancreas, liver, gall bladder), etc… Remember that the lining of your digestive tract, nephron tubules, etc… are external surfaces – you do not need to cross any cell layers to get there.

  2. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? I. Exocrine vs. Endocrine glands B. Endocrine - ductless, hormones secreted into blood - IMPORTANT: hormones circulate and influence ONLY cells with receptors for them (target cells) - >50 known hormones in vertebrates There are two main types of hormone secreting cells 1. Endocrine cells, which typically secrete their hormone in response to a chemical stimulus like a ligand or an environmental change like high glucose levels that triggers signal transduction. 2. Neurosecretory cells, which are neurons (wire-like cells that transmit electrical signals) that secrete hormones. These cells are typically activated by an electrical signal and use electrical signals to secrete their hormones. Most are found in the hypothalamus – the master endocrine organ Fig. 26.1

  3. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System A. Endocrine glands B. Chemical regulatory system of body Ex. Regulates metabolic rate, growth, maturation, reproduction, blood glucose, blood calcium, etc… Nervous system = other regulatory system of body Why do we need two regulatory systems? Endocrine = slower and more prolonged (long-lasting) effect Both systems work closely together (interdependent) Fig. 26.3

  4. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System D. Amino acid based vs. steroid hormones i. Amino acid based (3 types) 1. amine (modified amino acid) - ex. epinephrine 2. Peptide - ex. gastrin 3. protein hormones - ex. insulin epinephrine gastrin insulin

  5. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System D. Amino acid based vs. steroid hormones i. Amino acid based (3 types) 1. amine (modified amino acid) 2. Peptide 3. protein hormones How do amino acid based hormones “talk” to cells? 4. Bind and activate surface receptors (can’t cross PM) 5. Result: Turn genes On/Off or activate/deactivate enzymes, etc… Fig. 26.2

  6. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System D. Amino acid based vs. steroid hormones ii. Steroid hormone 1. Lipids made from cholesterol Ex. Testosterone and estrogen estrogen testosterone cholesterol

  7. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System D. Amino acid based vs. steroid hormones ii. Steroid hormone 1. Lipids made from cholesterol Ex. Testosterone and estrogen How do steroid hormones “talk” to cells? 2. Cytoplasmic receptor protein 3. Receptor protein usually a transcription factor 4. Turn genes ON/OFF ONLY Fig. 26.2

  8. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System D. Amino acid based vs. steroid hormones Fig. 26.2

  9. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System D. Amino acid based vs. steroid hormones iii. Exception to the rule a. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) - amine hormones - produced by thyroid - relatively non-polar, behave like steroids triiodothyronine (T3)

  10. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System E. Endocrine glands of vertebrates i. Some have ONLY endocrine function Ex. Thyroid and pituitary ii. Some also have a non-endocrine function Ex. pancreas Exocrine = digestive enzymes Endocrine = insulin release Fig. 26.3

  11. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System E. Major vertebrate endocrine glands and their hormones Pg. 521

  12. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System E. Major vertebrate endocrine glands and their hormones Pg. 521

  13. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System E. Major vertebrate endocrine glands and their hormones i. Steroid hormones made only by sex organs (testes and ovaries) and adrenal glands (specifically the adrenal cortex)

  14. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System F. The hypothalamus i. Part of brain ii. Master control center of endocrine system iii. Connects nervous system to endocrine system - receives info from nerves about internal and external environment iv. Closely tied to pituitary gland – in fact, the posterior pituitary is made of cells that extend from the hypothalamus Fig. 26.4

  15. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System F. The Pituitary i. Two parts 1. Posterior lobe (posterior pituitary) (extension of hypothalamus) - composed of nervous tissue - Made of neurosecretory cells - stores and secretes hormones made in hypothalamus Fig. 26.4

  16. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System F. The Pituitary i. Two parts 2. Anterior lobe (anterior pituitary) a. composed of NON-nervous glandular tissue (endocrine cells) b. synthesizes own hormones, most control other endocrine glands Hypothalamus hormones c. hormone release controlled by… Fig. 26.4

  17. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System F. The Pituitary i. Two parts 2. Anterior lobe (anterior pituitary) a. composed of NON-nervous glandular tissue b. synthesizes own hormones, most control other endocrine glands Hypothalamus hormones c. hormone release controlled by… - Hypothalamus hormones that control AP 1. Releasing hormones - Bunch of different hormones that signal AP to release a certain hormone 2. Inhibiting hormones - Bunch of different hormones that signal AP to stop releasing a certain hormone

  18. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System G. Example you need to know: Hypothalamus and AP interaction (Example) Fig. 26.4 1. cold external temperature 2. Hypothalmus secretes TRH into blood TRH = TSH releasing hormone 3. TRH stimulates AP to secrete TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) into blood Hypothalamus hormones 4. TSH stimulates thyroid to secrete the hormone thyroxine (T4) into the blood 5. Thyroxine (T4) binds to thyroxine receptors, which are found on most cells instructing them to increases metabolic rate of body cells – heat generated 6. Thyroxine (T4) and TSH inhibit hypothalamus from secreting TRH NEGATIVE FEEDBACK (hypothalamus regulates body temp through thyroid)

  19. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System Fig. 26.4 Hmm..what kind of receptor TRH binds to? Hypothalamus hormones

  20. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System G. Example you need to know: Hypothalamus and AP interaction (Example) 1. cold external temperature 2. Hypothalmus secretes TRH into blood TRH = TSH releasing hormone 3. TRH stimulates AP to secrete TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) into blood 4. TSH stimulates thyroid to secrete the hormone thyroxine (T4) into the blood 5. Thyroxine (T4) binds to thyroxine receptors, which are found on most cells instructing them to increases metabolic rate of body cells – heat generated 6. Thyroxine (T4) and TSH inhibit hypothalamus from secreting TRH NEGATIVE FEEDBACK (hypothalamus regulates body temp through thyroid)

  21. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.5 II. The Endocrine System H. The Hypothalamus and Posterior pituitary (PP) i. REMINDER: hormones made in hypothalamus and stored/released in PP ii. Neurosecretory cells extend into PP where they secrete hormone into blood 1. oxytocin - causes uterine muscles to contract during child birth – polypeptide hormone Target organs (the organs targeted by the hormone) It is typically administered intravenously immediately after child birth as well to keep the contractions going to make sure the placenta comes out / is delivered. - mammary glands to pump milk 2. ADH (antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin) - Target organs are kidneys - reabsorb water from collecting duct of nephrons - Polypeptide hormone, see excretory system

  22. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? FLAGTEP Fig. 26.5 II. The Endocrine System I. The Hypothalamus and Anterior pituitary (AP) - neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus secrete RH or IH (releasing hormone / inhibitory hormone) - blood carries RH/IH to AP to control hormone secretion – each hormone released by AP is contolled by a different RH/IH 1. Hormones from AP that control other endocrine glands: TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone FSH - follicle stimulating hormone LH - luteinizing hormone 2. Other hormones GH - growth hormone PRL - prolactin Endorphins (endogenous morphine)

  23. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? FLAGTEP Fig. 26.5 II. The Endocrine System I. The Hypothalamus and Anterior pituitary (AP) - neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus secrete RH or IH (releasing hormone / inhibitory hormone) 2. Other hormones GH - growth hormone PRL - prolactin Endorphins Human Growth Hormone (hGH) is a protein. It targets many cells and stimulates growth of these cells as well as mitotic division. As you might have hypothesized, levels of GH in the blood fall off with age.

  24. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? FLAGTEP Fig. 26.5 II. The Endocrine System I. The Hypothalamus and Anterior pituitary (AP) - neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus secrete RH or IH (releasing hormone / inhibitory hormone) 2. Other hormones GH - growth hormone PRL - prolactin Endorphins Prolactin is a protein as well. It promotes lactation (production of milk) in females.

  25. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System NEW AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? FLAGTEP Fig. 26.5 II. The Endocrine System I. The Hypothalamus and Anterior pituitary (AP) - neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus secrete RH or IH (releasing hormone / inhibitory hormone) 2. Other hormones GH - growth hormone PRL - prolactin Endorphins Beta-endorphin: A 31 amino acid polypeptide. Endorphins are neurotransmitters, which means they talk to neurons and tell them to fire or not to fire. We will discuss this in detail with the nervous system. In general, endorphins are released during exercise, excitement, and pain and bring about feelings of well being and pain reduction similar to morphine (endo – form within, orphin – morphine = endorphine)

  26. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.3 II. The Endocrine System J. Thyroid 1. located just below larynx 2. Hormones produced (amine) - Thyroxine T4 - Triidodthyronine T3 triiodothyronine (T3) Both contain iodine

  27. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.6A II. The Endocrine System J. Thyroid 1. located just below larynx 2. Hormones produced (amine) - Thyroxine T4 - Triidodthyronine T3 triiodothyronine (T3) Both contain iodine Remember the Goiter - lack of iodine in diet – causes thyroid to swell like a balloon as it tries to make T3 and T4 under excessive TSH stimulation.

  28. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.6 II. The Endocrine System J. Thyroid 1. located just below larynx 2. Hormones produced (amine) - Thyroxine T4 - Triidodthyronine T3 Why a goiter forms Goiter - lack of iodine in diet

  29. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.6 II. The Endocrine System J. Thyroid 1. located just below larynx 2. Hormones produced (amine) - Thyroxine T4 - Triidodthyronine T3 Iodized salt Why a goiter forms Goiter - lack of iodine in diet

  30. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System 2. Blood calcium homeostasis (10mg/100ml) A. Some uses of calcium i. Help neurons to transmit signals ii. Muscle contraction iii. Blood clotting (coagulation) iv. Cotransport across PM v. IP3 regulated cell signalling Cotransport occurs when a cell uses energy to actively pump a substance like Ca++ or H+ across a membrane resulting in an electrochemical gradient similar to the pumping of H+ into the intermembrane space of the mitochondria or into the thylakoid disk. When the substance diffuses back passively, the energy is used to transport another molecule with it from low to high concentration (active) – therefore your link facilitated diffusion with active transport.

  31. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System 2. Blood calcium homeostasis (10mg/100ml) A. Some uses of calcium i. Help neurons to transmit signals ii. Muscle contraction iii. Blood clotting (coagulation) iv. Cotransport across PM v. IP3 regulated cell signalling

  32. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.3 II. The Endocrine System 2. Blood calcium homeostasis (10mg/100ml in blood normally) B. NOT UNDER HYPOTHALAMUS/PITUITARY CONTROL C. Hormones involved i. Calcitonin (calcium in) - secreted by thyroid - lower blood Ca++ It is a polypeptide:

  33. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.3 II. The Endocrine System 2. Blood calcium homeostasis (10mg/100ml) B. NOT UNDER HYPOTHALAMUS/PITUITARY CONTROL C. Hormones involved i. Calcitonin (calcium in) - secreted by thyroid - lowers blood Ca++ ii. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) - secreted by parathyroid glands - raises blood Ca++ PTH (protein)

  34. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.3 II. The Endocrine System 2. Blood calcium homeostasis (10mg/100ml) B. NOT UNDER HYPOTHALAMUS/PITUITARY CONTROL C. Hormones involved i. Calcitonin - secreted by thyroid - lower blood Ca++ ii. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) - secreted by parathyroid - raises blood Ca++ **These are antagonistic hormones (opposite effects)

  35. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System 2. Blood calcium homeostasis (10mg/100ml) B. NOT UNDER HYPOTHALAMUS/PITUITARY CONTROL C. Hormones involved i. Calcitonin - secreted by thyroid - lower blood Ca++ ii. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) - secreted by parathyroid four embedded in thyroid - raises blood Ca++ **These are antagonistic hormones (opposite effects)

  36. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.7 II. The Endocrine System 2. Blood calcium homeostasis (10mg/100ml) D. Mechanism of action i. Calcitonin targets: - bone, kidneys ii. PTH targets: - intestines, bone, kidneys IMPORTANT: What you need to realize is that the levels are ALWAYS fluctuating up and down like a sinusoidal wave. This is a hallmark of feedback. It never stays at 10mg/100ml and this goes for the concentration of anything in your body like protein levels in a cell or blood glucose…. Nothing is static, everything is dynamic. four embedded in thyroid

  37. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.7 II. The Endocrine System 2. Blood calcium homeostasis (10mg/100ml)

  38. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.3 II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) A. NOT UNDER HYPOTHALAMUS/PITUITARY CONTROL B. Pancreas i. Endocrine and exocrine gland

  39. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) A. NOT UNDER HYPOTHALAMUS/PITUITARY CONTROL B. Pancreas i. Endocrine and exocrine gland ii Islets of Langerhan - endocrine portion - made of alpha (α) and beta (β) cells

  40. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) C. Hormones involved i. insulin - produced by beta cells insulin - lowers blood glucose ii. glucagon - produced by alpha cells - raises blood glucose - Glucose is gone (glucagon…get it?) glucagon **These are antagonistic hormones (opposite effects)

  41. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.8 II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) D. Mechanism of action i. Insulin targets: - liver, body cells (fat cells, muscle cells) ii. Glucagon targets: - liver Hyperglycemia vs. Hypoglycemia

  42. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.8 II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) D. Mechanism of action STORY: You eat a candy bar or anything with carbs and your blood sugar raises above 90mg/100ml. Proteins on the surface of pancreatic beta cells located in the Islets of Langerhan signal the beta cells to secrete insulin (take glucose in) into the blood. Insulin circulates and binds to insulin receptors on hepatic (liver) cell, adipocytes (fat cells), and myocytes (muscle cells). Signal transduction occurs and the cells send glucose transporter proteins to their membranes. Glucose enters by facilitated diffusion and is converted to glycogen in liver and muscle, and to triglycerides in adipocytes. The blood sugar levels drop causing the beta cells to stop secreting insulin.

  43. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.8 II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) D. Mechanism of action STORY: When they fall too low, the proteins on the surface of pancreatic alpha cells also located within the Islets of Langerhan send a signal into the alpha cells causing them to secrete glucagon (glucose is gone) into the blood. Glucagon will circulate and bind to glucagon receptors located on hepatocytes and adipocytes causing them to breakdown glycogen and release glucose. Why would you not signal the myocytes to release glucose? Because the muscles always need the glucose to make ATP so they can contract. Muscles do not store it for the body, they store it for themselves. The blood sugar levels rise causing the alpha cells to stop secreting glucagon.

  44. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) E. disorders i. Diabetes mellitus a. body cells do not absorb glucose (blood glucose high) b. affects 5 out of 100 in US c. 350,000 die from disease/year d. Two types 1. Type I insulin dependent (early onset) - autoimmune disease against beta cells - don’t produce enough insulin Insulin pump attached to user - develops before age 15 typically - insulin injection required - genetically engineered (human insulin gene put into a plasmid and inserted into bacteria)

  45. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) E. disorders i. Diabetes mellitus a. body cells do not absorb glucose (blood glucose high) b. affects 5 out of 100 in US c. 350,000 die from disease/year d. Two types 1. Type II NON-insulin dependent (late or adult onset) - faulty/missing insulin receptors on cells - Insulin is being made just not being “seen” - 90% of US cases are Type II - typically develops after 40 - Treatment - control sugar intake (diet) - drugs that reduce glucose levels

  46. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) E. disorders i. Diabetes mellitus a. body cells do not absorb glucose (blood glucose high) b. affects 5 out of 100 in US c. 350,000 die from disease/year d. Two types 1. Type II NON-insulin dependent (late or adult onset) i. Cause - Genetic predisposition combined with environmental triggers like obesity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, high fat diets and inactive lifestyle. ii. Treatment - Managed by exercise and diet management

  47. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions? Fig. 26.8 II. The Endocrine System 3. Blood glucose regulation (90mg/100ml) E. disorders i. Diabetes mellitus a. body cells do not absorb glucose (hyperglycemia = blood glucose high) b. affects 5 out of 100 in US c. 350,000 die from disease/year d. Type I and Type II e. Result - Cells don’t take up glucose resulting in high blood glucose levels, burn fat/proteins instead - Glucose seen in urine because kidneys can’t take it out of the proximal tubule quick enough - High glucose levels cause

  48. Chapter 26: Regulation Part I - The Endocrine System AIM: How do chemical signals coordinate body functions?

  49. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System C. How does the kidney extract filtrate? 1. The Nephron Fig. 25.9 i. Functional unit of the kidney (tiny filtering unit) ii. ~1,000,000 per kidney iii. Each extracts tiny amount of filtrate

  50. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System C. How does the kidney extract filtrate? 1. The Nephron - Flow chart through nephron Fig. 25.9 http://www.biologymad.com/resources/kidney.swf