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Northern Ireland

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  1. Northern Ireland Tuaisceart Éireann

  2. Northern Ireland, administrative division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, situated in the north-eastern portion of the island of Ireland. The remaining portion of the island is part of the Republic of Ireland. Northern Ireland constitutes about 17 percent of the land area of Ireland and has 31 percent of the island’s population. The capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast. NorthernIreland’s population is deeply divided along religious and political lines. The schism between the Protestant majority and the Roman Catholic minority extends deep into Northern Ireland’s past and has strongly influenced the region’s culture, settlement patterns, and politics

  3. Historical links • The whole of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom until 1920, as the British government—faced with growing violent resistance—offered limited local government to Ireland. • The island was divided into two regions, Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, both under the control of the United Kingdom. Each region was granted the right to elect a local parliament while maintaining representation in the British Parliament.

  4. When local parliamentary elections were held in 1921, the southern Irish parliament refused to recognize British control. • As a result, of the original32 counties of Ireland, the 6 north-easterly counties became a British province officially known as Northern Ireland. • The remaining 26 counties became independent in 1922 as the Irish Free State (later Eire, and subsequently the Republic of Ireland). • Catholicsseeking integration with Ireland are often referred to as republicans or nationalists, while Protestants who want Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom are often called unionists or loyalists

  5. Political Murals in Northern IrelandMany buildings in the Catholic and Protestant working-class neighbourhoods of Belfast, feature political murals. a mural supporting the republican political party Sinn Fein, left, and one supporting the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), a loyalist paramilitary group, right

  6. From 1921 to 1972 Northern Ireland had its own regionalparliament that exercised considerable authority over localaffairs. • The Protestant, unionist majority dominated the parliament, which made the government unpopular with the Catholic, nationalist minority. Northern Ireland experienced a nearly continuous period of violent conflict between these two groups from the late 1960s through the mid-1990s. • The violence extended beyond Ireland, as republican paramilitary groups—in particular the Irish Republican Army (IRA)—also struck targets in London and elsewhere in England. The clashes, bombings, and assassinations in this period were often referred to as “the troubles.” • In 1972 the British government shut down Northern Ireland’s regional parliament and governed the region directly from London. A 1998 accord known as the Good Friday Agreementrestored some powers to a new provincial government.

  7. Bloody Sunday in Northern Ireland The so-called Bloody Sunday incident on January 30, 1972, is one of the most notorious events of the sectarian violence in Northern Ireland. British troops opened fire on a crowd of civil rights protesters marching in Londonderry/Derry, killing 13 people.

  8. The Protestant community often refers to Northern Ireland as Ulster. Catholics seldom use this name. For most Catholics the term Ulster is used only to refer to the historic Irish province of Ulster, which consisted of the current six counties and three other counties that are now in the Republic of Ireland. Catholics tend to refer to the territory as “the north of Ireland,” and those of strongly nationalist views also use the term “the six counties.”

  9. LAND AND RESOURCES • The total area of Northern Ireland is 14,160 sq km, of which 628 sq km is inland water. • Northern Ireland is bounded on the north and northeast by the North Channel, on the southeast by the Irish Sea, and on the south and west by Ireland. The border with Ireland is 360 km long. The region’s coastline consists of wide, sandy beaches, broken by steep cliffs in the north, northeast, and southeast. • Near the northernmost point of Northern Ireland is Giant’s Causeway, an unusual formation of basalt columns created by the cooling of an ancient lava flow. Rathlin Island and several smaller islands lie off the northern coast.

  10. Giant’s Causeway

  11. REGIONS • The different regions of Northern Ireland are frequently referred to by the names of the province’s six traditional Irish counties, even though they are no longer the units of local government. These are—clockwise from the northeast—Antrim, Down, Armagh, Fermanagh, Tyrone, and Londonderry (Derry).

  12. six traditional Irishcounties

  13. Hillsborough Castle

  14. Enniskillen

  15. Carrickfergus Castle

  16. Scrabo Tower

  17. Londonderry

  18. Newry

  19. Beaghmore Stone Circles

  20. Castlewellan Forest Park

  21. Rivers and Lakes • Lough Neagh, in the centre of Northern Ireland, is the largest freshwater lake in the British Isles, with an area of 396 sq km • All the region’s counties border it except Fermanagh. Upper and Lower Lough Erne, in Fermanagh, are the only other major freshwater lakes. Belfast Lough, Carlingford Lough, Strangford Lough, and Lough Foyle are the largest sea inlets. • The major river of Northern Ireland is the Bann, which rises in the Mourne Mountains and flows northward through Lough Neagh to become a wide and navigable waterway to the sea. • The Foyle flows north to the sea at the port city of Londonderry (Derry), forming the border with Ireland for part of its length. The Lagan flows northeast to the sea at Belfast.

  22. Lough Neagh • Area 388 sq km • The largest freshwater lake in the British Isles • Recreation, bird watching, eel fishing, sand dredging

  23. Enniskillen Castle on the Erne River .

  24. Climate • Northern Ireland’s climate is temperate, with warm winters and cool summers. In January the average daily temperature is around 4°C, and in July it is about 15°C. Annual precipitation is about 1,100 mm (42 in) • Spring is normally the driest season. Overcast skies are the norm: Average daily hours of clear skies range from less than two from November to January to around six in May and June. Northern Ireland tends to be breezy, and gales are common in spring and fall.

  25. POPULATION • The total population of Northern Ireland is 1,710,300 (2004). The overall population density is 121 persons per sq km.

  26. BELFAST • Belfast is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland. Almost half of the province’s population lives in the greater Belfast area. Founded on the sandy mouth of the Lagan River in 1613 by settlers from Britain, Belfast took its name from Beal Feirsde (Irish for “the mouth of the sandbank”). Belfast remained a small trading port until about 1800. It subsequently became a major industrial city, growing from about 20,000 people at the beginning of the 1800s to a peak of 443,671 in 1951.

  27. City Hall, Belfast

  28. Panorama of Belfast, taken from a tower of Queen's University.

  29. Northern Ireland’s second largest city, Londonderry (Derry), is much smaller. Derry (Irish Doire, for “place of the oaks”), a small community centred around a 6th-century abbey, was rebuilt by British settlers in 1613, and the official name of the city became Londonderry. This name was never fully accepted or used by Catholics, who in general still refer to the city as Derry. The city is therefore often referred to in books and other text sources as Londonderry/Derry

  30. Londonderry/Derry

  31. Armagh • The only other urban centre designated as a city is Armagh, which is actually a small town. Armagh owes its prominence to its historic role as the centre of Christianity in Ireland and the home of both the Catholic and Anglican primates of all Ireland. • Major towns include the market centres of Coleraine (headquarters of the University of Ulster), Dungannon, Enniskillen, Omagh, and Strabane; the ports of Larne and Newry; and the historic linen manufacturing towns of Ballymena, Lurgan, and Portadown.

  32. Armagh Armagh is the ecclesiastical capital of Ireland and has been an important religious centre since the days of Saint Patrick the rolling countryside of the southern part of the Armagh District

  33. Language • Almost all residents of Northern Ireland speak English. Only a tiny percentage speak Irish, a Gaelic language, except in remote upland areas in the Glens of Antrim, the Mourne Mountains, and the Sperrin Mountains, where Irish is more widely spoken. • The Catholic and nationalist community has tended to become more enthusiastic about learning Irish as a second language during periods of heightened political activity—for example, from 1900 to 1920 and from 1970 to the present day. • Recent government policies and the expansion of university education have encouraged mutual respect for the two cultural traditions in the province. This has boosted the Irish language movement, as well as the rise in popularity of Ulster-Scots, or Ullans, among the Protestant community

  34. The Sperrin Mountains

  35. Way of Life and Social Issues • Northern Ireland’s Catholic and Protestant communities are both predominantly conservative in their social and religious outlook. Church attendance remains high, although it has been falling in recent years. Catholic and Protestant attitudes on matters of sexual morality and abortion are notably similar. Divorce levels are low in comparison to those in the rest of the United Kingdom. The proportion of mixed Catholic-Protestant marriages has risen recently but remains only a small percentage of all marriages. • Many people believe that the decades of political violence strengthened the women’s movement in Northern Ireland. Women often came to the forefront of political life to demand peace and an end to terrorism. Two Belfast women jointly received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1976 for working to reconcile Northern Ireland’s religious communities.

  36. Sports are popular in Northern Ireland. In the Catholic community Gaelic football and hurling are popular among men, and camogie (a sport similar to hurling) is popular among women. Among Protestants popular games are rugby union football, cricket, and field hockey. Association football (soccer) and golf are popular games in both Catholic and Protestant communities. • The Catholic-Protestant segregation extends to Northern Irish society in general. Urban residential neighbourhoods are highly segregated. • Protestants hold higher-status jobs more frequently and Catholics are somewhat more likely to be unskilled or unemployed. The Fair Employment Commission (originally the Fair Employment Agency) has statutory powers to investigate cases of alleged discrimination and patterns of ethnic imbalance in all but the very smallest companies.

  37. ECONOMY • The economy has revived in recent years as major British retailing chains have moved into the province, and the tourism industry has begun to achieve its full potential. Most of Northern Ireland’s import and export trade is with other parts of the United Kingdom. The Republic of Ireland is the next most important trading partner. • Most farms in Northern Ireland are small. Historically they began as tenant farms owned by the landlords of large estates. Agriculture in Northern Ireland largely revolves around livestock production—cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry are the main animals raised. Barley is the most important crop, followed by potatoes and oats.

  38. Sheep Grazing on a Hillside Agriculture dominates the economy of Northern Ireland outside the heavily industrialized cities of Belfast and Derry. The climate of Northern Ireland, with its frequent rain and high humidity, is not conducive to extensive farming but provides rich pasture for sheep and cattle

  39. GOVERNMENT • Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which is a parliamentary monarchy and an electoral democracy. The province is represented by 18 members in the British Parliament's House of Commons. Voting age in the United Kingdom is 18. • The head of Northern Ireland is the British Monarch {currently Queen Elizabeth II}

  40. Northern Ireland Assembly • Established under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement. • Often has been suspended since its establishment. • Consists of 108 members. • Of the 108 members, 59 are Unionists and 42 are Nationalist. • The Assembly is based on the principle of power-sharing.

  41. Secretary of State for Northern Ireland • The British cabinet minister. • The office was created in 1972. • The Secretary of State resides in Hillsborough Castle.

  42. Subdivisions 1.Provinces {Ulster} 2.Traditional counties. 3.Districts of Northern Ireland.

  43. 1. Antrim 2. Ards 3. Armagh 4. Ballymena 5. Ballymoney 6. Banbridge 7. Belfast 8. Carrickfergus 9. Castlereagh 10. Coleraine 11. Cookstown 12. Craigavon 13. Derry 14. Down 15. Dungannon and South Tyrone 16. Fermanagh 17. Larne 18. Limavady 19. Lisburn 20. Magherafelt 21. Moyle 22. Newry and Mourne 23. Newtownabbey 24. North Down 25. Omagh 26. Strabane Districts of Northern Ireland

  44. City status • City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the British monarch. • The status does not apply automatically on the basis of any particular criteria. • Currently there are five cities in Northern Ireland: • Armagh • Belfast • Derry/Londonderry • Lisburn • Newry

  45. TRADITIONS • Ulster Fry -bacon,eggs,sausages,the farl form of soda bread, potato bread, tomato • Irish Breakfast–Ulster fry +black pudding,mushrooms,beans Traditionally fried in lard • Farls-term used for roughly triangular flat breads and cakes, made by cutting a round into four pieces.

  46. Symbolism • There is no longer an official Flag of Northern Ireland, itwas abolished 1972 • Unionists tend to use the Union Flag or The Flag of Northern Ireland (The Ulster Banner,Red Hand Flag),while nationalist the Flag of Ireland or Flag of Ulster.