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Project 1 PJM: RTO

Project 1 PJM: RTO

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Project 1 PJM: RTO

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  1. Project 1PJM: RTO By Nishant Patel Chirag Patel

  2. Contents • Introduction & Governance • PJM as RTO • PJM Operations • Transmission Services • PJM Market • Ancillary Services • Blackstart Service • Transmission Control

  3. Introduction • PJM operates world’s largest competitive wholesale electricity market. • It manages a long-term regional electric transmission planning process to maintain the reliability of the power supply system. • PJM was designated an RTO (Regional Transmission Organization) by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in 2001. • PJM, headquartered in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania • Ensures the reliability in 13 states and the District of Columbia.

  4. Introduction

  5. Introduction/About PJM • 13 States: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia • Complexity: 1271 Generation Resources with Diverse Fuel Over 56,250 Miles of Transmission Lines Over 51 Million People Served Generating capacity - 164,905 MW Annual energy delivery - 729 million MWh

  6. Introduction/About PJM • Uniqueness: • Single Control Area in NERC Region • Area Served: 13 States + DC • Members/Customers: • Member Companies ~ 500 + • Transmission Svc. Customers ~ 100 + • Cumulative Billing (since 1997) ~ $74 Billion

  7. Introduction/About PJM • PJM is currently the largest centrally dispatched entity in North America • PJM -144,644* • MISO -136,520 • ERCOT -63,056 • California -50,538 • New York -33,879 • New England -27,401 * Peak load in MW as of Summer, 2006

  8. Introduction/About PJMPJM -RTO Worldwide Comparison

  9. Introduction • How is PJM different from Local Utility? PJM does: • Maintain the “big picture” of the transmission system regardless of ownership. • Have, by agreement, operational control of the transmission system. • Operate as “profit neutral.” • Remain totally independent of all PJM members. • Coordinates maintenance of generation and transmission systems.

  10. Introduction • How is PJM different from Local Utility? PJM does not: • Own any transmission or generation assets. • Function as a publicly traded company. • Take ownership of the energy on the system. • Perform the actual maintenance on generators or transmission systems. • Serve, directly, any end use (retail) customers.

  11. Governance Two Tire Governance Structure • INDEPENDENT BOARD – 10 Members Elected by Members’ Committee • MEMBERS’ COMMITTEE • Formed by Sectoral Voting • Provide advice & recommendations to PJM Board. • Amend the operating agreement subject to FERC approval

  12. Governance

  13. Governance PJM Committee Structure

  14. PJM as RTO • What is RTO ? • An entity that is independent from all generation and power marketing interests and has exclusive responsibility for grid operations, short-term reliability, and transmission service within a region. • Independence from market participants • Appropriate scope and regional configuration • Possession of operational authority • Exclusive authority to maintain short-term reliability

  15. PJM as RTORTO Functions • Administer tariff • Manage congestion • Develop and implement procedures to address parallel path flow • Supply ancillary services • Operate OASIS • Monitor market • Plan and coordinate transmission additions and upgrades

  16. PJM as RTOBenefits of RTO • Security-constrained economic dispatch, which involves using the least-cost generators to meet load on the system, allows PJM to operate a reliable and efficient bid-based market • This method of dispatching has proven cost savings • For Eg.: Market integrations in the year 2004 within PJM have resulted in a cost savings of $84.5 million for wholesale customers in the Eastern Interconnection

  17. PJM Daily Operations • The three time-frames pertinent to the daily operation are: 1) Prescheduling 2) Scheduling 3) Dispatch

  18. PJM Daily Operations Prescheduling, scheduling & dispatch timeline

  19. PJM Daily Operations Scheduling timeline

  20. PJM Daily Operations Dispatch > Dispatch Operations Center

  21. PJM Daily OperationsDispatch Functions • Make sure that enough generation is available or is running to satisfy the end users demand • Monitor, operate and control the high voltage transmission system in a reliable manner. • Enables power system to follow load as it moves from valley, to peak, to valley over a 24-hour period under Economic Generation Control. • Dispatch Control Center operates, controls, and monitors both generation and transmission

  22. Transmission Services • Ensure Security of the Transmission System • Monitor Transfer Limitations • Monitor Thermal Constraints • Contingency Analysis • Direct Emergency Operations • Direct Off-Cost Operations –Generation Shifts –Contract Curtailments • Coordinate Switching

  23. Two Settlement Market • TSM provides PJM Market Participants with the option to participate in a forward market for electric energy in PJM • Consists of two markets • Day-ahead Market • Real-time Energy Market • Separate settlements are performed for each market

  24. Two Settlement Market • Day-ahead Market –Day-ahead schedule uses least-cost unit commitment and economic dispatch programs –Hourly LMPs for next Operating Day calculated using generation offers, demand bids, and bilateral transaction schedules • Real-time Energy Market –calculate hourly LMPs based on actual operating conditions

  25. Two Settlement MarketDay Ahead Market Information Flow

  26. Ancillary Services

  27. Ancillary Services

  28. Ancillary Services

  29. Ancillary Services • eDART Internet based system that allows communication of system information between PJM and member company dispatchers, i.e. Generation and Transmission Outage Tickets. • ALL-CALL Used by PJM operations staff to simultaneously disseminate information to transmission and generation control centers.

  30. Ancillary Tools Video Graphic Recorders (VGRs) —VGRs are used to display and record the following: • LSE net generation, interchange information, control information, and other critical operating data. • Informational TV — This TV is used to obtain weather and Emergency information from selected local network and cable channels. • Weather Data — Weather reports are printed from the Internet, as posted by the vendor. • Direct Phone Lines — Direct telephone line communication is available between PJM, the Local Control Centers, LSEs and between PJM and adjacent Control Areas.

  31. Ancillary Services • Ancillary Tools • Dynamic Mapboard — The dynamic mapboard displays selected system data; status of lines, transformers, capacitors, and generators; and the results of security analysis of the bulk power transmission system. 6. Satellite Communications – Push-to-talk all-call and direct point-to-point satellite communications exists with PJM participants and participating external entities as back-up communications

  32. Reserves Reserves are the additional capacity above the expected load. Scheduling excess capacity protects the power system against the uncertain occurrence of future operating events, including the loss of capacity or load forecasting errors.

  33. Monitoring Reserves • On a daily basis the PJM dispatcher performs an Instantaneous Reserve Check (IRC). • When the PJM Generation dispatcher requests an IRC, member dispatchers report the information via eDART.

  34. Loading Reserves • During disturbance conditions (i.e., loss of generation and/or transmission resources), synchronized reserve and, to the extent necessary, Non-Synchronized Reserves are used to recover the Area Control Error, so that tie line schedules are maintained.

  35. PJM PROCEDURES • Step 1 - requests an IRC. • Step 2 - PJM dispatcher deter mines the following values: • Operating Reserve • Adjusted Primary Reserve versus Primary Reserve Requirement. • Adjusted Synchronized Reserve versus Synchronized Reserve Requirement • Unaccounted for capacity • Area Synchronized Reserve levels • Step 3 - compares the values, corresponding objectives to determine reserve deficiencies. • Step 4 - Using the PJM eDART, PJM dispatcher reports the results of the IRC to the Generation Owners/Transmission Owners.

  36. Actions on loading reserve PJM dispatcher determines the approximate amount and location of lost generation, and the amount of Synchronized Reserve that must be loaded to: Correct for the sudden loss of generation 2. Return interchange transfers or other thermal or reactive limitations to within the appropriate limits 3. Implement 100% synchronized reserves and /or contingency reserves (quick start) if the unit loss > 80% of the largest unit contingency and there is insufficient regulation and economic generation to recover the ACE

  37. PJM Actions 4. Load a percentage of the Synchronized Reserve (typically 100%) in the appropriate control zone(s). 5. Select the most effective response respecting the requirements of the regional reserve sharing programs in which PJM is a participant. 6. If loading of Synchronized Reserve may continue for longer than ten minutes, PJM dispatcher includes this statement in the PJM ALL-CALL message.

  38. PJM Actions 7. Contact external systems to implement Shared Reserves. 8. Requests the loading of an appropriate amount of non synchronized reserve (as required). 9. If Synchronized Reserve that is being loaded is not sufficient to recover the system, load synchronized Secondary Reserve. • PJM dispatcher evaluates the effect.

  39. Regulation • Purpose: To provide for the continuous balancing of generation and load.

  40. Regulation • Regulation for each Control Zone is supplied from resources that are located within that zone. • Requirements • The Regulation Requirement for the PJM RTO is 1.0% of the forecast peak load for the entire day. • Regulation range of a resource is at least twice the amount of Regulation assigned.

  41. Regulation • Resource owners wishing to provide Regulation in the PJM control area are required to submit the following data via eMKT no later than 6:00 p.m. day-ahead: • Offer MW • Offer Price • Available Status • Regulation Max MW • Regulation Min MW

  42. Regulation Signals Resource owners will receive from PJM: • AReg – Assigned Regulation: This is the assigned hourly regulation quantity (MW) that is cleared from the regulation market system. • RegA – Real-time instantaneous resource owner fleet regulation signal (+/- MW)

  43. Regulation Signals • Resource owners will send to PJM: TReg – Total Regulation. This is the real-time fleet regulation capability (MW) that represents the active resource owner’s ability to regulate. CReg – Current Regulation. This is the real-time fleet regulation feedback (+/- MW) that represents the active position of the fleet with respect to the +/- TReg capability.

  44. Dispatching Regulation PJM obtains the most cost efficient Regulation, order based on the total cost of each available resource to provide Regulation, including real time opportunity cost and the resource’s Regulation offer price.

  45. Qualifying Regulating Resources An Area Regulation (AR) test is used for both certifying and verifying regulating capability for a resource. During the AR test, the AR signal is fixed for the following four ten-minute periods: • T0-T10 • T10-T20 • T20-T30 • T30-T40

  46. Area Regulation (AR) test

  47. Blackstart Service • Purpose: To determine critical black start generating units and to maintain their ability to be used in restoring the power system in the event of a blackout.

  48. Blackstart Service • Minimum Critical Unit Requirements There must be sufficient critical blackstart to serve critical load and at least a minimum of three critical black start units for each transmission zone