Cell Division Mitosis
Cell Division Vocabulary Mitosis- is the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei. Chromosome- is a structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material. Asexual Reproduction- a new organism is produced from ONE organism. 2
The Cell Cycle • The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo is known as the cell cycle. • Steps: • Cells grow & function, DNA copied, Cell grows and prepares for mitosis, Mitosis happens, and Cytoplasm divides.
The Phases • Interphase • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase • Cytokinesis I Promised My Aunt Tina Chocolate
Interphase • During interphase, the cell grows to its mature size, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two cells. DNA is Replicated (copied)
Next Stage is Mitosis: 4 Parts • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase
Prophase • Threadlike chromatin in the cell’s nucleus begins to condense and coil.
The Chromosome • Chromosome: “X” shaped cell structure that directs cell activities and passes on traits to new cells. • Each identical strand of the chromosome is called a chromatid. • The strands are held together by a structure called the centromere. • Chromatin: Loosely coiled DNA
Metaphase: Meet in the Middle • Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell. • Each chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber at its centromere.
Anaphase: Split Apart • Chromosomes are pulled apart by the spindle fibers and brought to each end of the cell.
Telophase: Two New Nuclei • Two new nuclei are formed • Chromosomes begin to uncoil
Cytokinesis • Animal Cells: Cell membrane pinches in between the two new cells. • Plant Cells: Cell plate forms between the two cells. Cell Wall is too rigid to be pinched apart.
Homework • Illustrate the Six stages of the Cell Cycle. How you illustrate them or what materials you use is completely up to you. Just be sure that each stage is clearly illustrated and labeled.
Length of the Cell Cycle of a Human Liver Cell • Interphase: 21 hours • Growth : 9 hours • DNA Replication: 10 hours • Preparation for Division: 2 hours • Mitosis: 1 hour • Prophase • Metaphase • Anaphase • Telophase
Sea Urchin Cell Cycle • Sea Urchin Cell Cycle takes 2 hours
Human Brain Cells • Never divide, they remain in the first part of interphase for as long as they live!
Cellular Asexual Reproduction • Requires one organism to reproduce • Hereditary material will be IDENTICAL to the parent. • Recall: Mitosis is the division of the nucleus. Question: What if an organism doesn’t have a nucleus? • Fission- an organism copies its genetic material then divides into 2 identical organisms
Budding and regeneration • Budding- type of asexual reproduction made possible because of cell division. • The bud on the adult organism becomes large enough it breaks away to live on it’s own. • Regeneration- the process that uses cell division to re-grow body parts. • Example: Starfish
The Steps of the Ladder • Each rung of the DNA ladder is made up of a pair of molecules called nitrogen bases. • There are four kinds of Nitrogen Bases: • Adenine (A) • Thymine (T) • Guanine (G) • Cytosine (C)
The Pairs • Adenine only pairs with Thymine • Guanine only pairs with Cytosine
DNA Replication • The ladder unzips and the rungs find new pairs that are floating in the nucleus.