The U. S. Constitution Securing or Betraying the Revolution, 1787
Conflict and Compromise • Virginia and New Jersey Plans • Great Compromise • 3/5s Compromise • Tariff & Slave Trade
Big States versus Little States Virginia plan above, N. J. plan left Roger Sherman’s great compromise Passed on July 23.
Lower house to control money and apportioned by population; upper house has state equality. Great Compromise
So What is Population? • 3/5s compromise • Slaves counted as .60 of white person for apportioning direct taxation and for apportioning the lower house according to population • Why 3/5s? • "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons."
Tariff and Slave Trade • Congress could use tariff to raise revenue—led to Tariff of 1789. • Congress could not interfere with international slave trade for 20 years. • Location of Capital—permanently in the slave states, but first in New York (1789-90) and the Philadelphia (1790-1800)
Committee of Style and Arrangement • Gouverneur Morris (1752-1816) headed committee and did most of the actual drafting. • Preamble is largely his own work: “We, the people of the United States….”
Did Constitution Secure or Betray Revolution? • Republic, not Democracy. • States determined franchise • Central government more powerful than state governments: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. Article VI.