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Lawful Intercept in VoIP Networks PowerPoint Presentation
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Lawful Intercept in VoIP Networks

Lawful Intercept in VoIP Networks

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Lawful Intercept in VoIP Networks

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  1. Lawful Intercept in VoIP Networks Manohar Mahavadi Vice President, Software Engineering Centillium Communications Inc. Fremont, California

  2. Lawful Interception – Introduction • Omnibus Crime Prevention and Safe Streets Act of 1968 • Title III legalizes law enforcement wiretaps in criminal investigations • Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) • Wiretapping in advance of a crime being perpetrated • The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (ECPA) • Sets standards for access to cell phones, e-mail and other electronic communications and transactional records (subscriber identifying information, logs, toll records) • Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (CALEA) • Preserve law enforcement wiretapping capabilities by requiring telephone companies to design their systems to ensure a basic level of government access • H.R.3162 (The PATRIOT Act of 2001) • Post 9/11 • Expands the scope of Title III wiretaps and FISA to include computer fraud, abuse, etc.

  3. Lawful Interception – CALEA (U.S.) • What is CALEA? • Defines the obligations of telecom carriers to assist law enforcement agencies (LEAs) in electronic surveillance pursuantto lawful authorization • Requires carriers to design and modify their systems to ensure that electronic surveillance can be performed • Communications infrastructure should be made wiretap-ready – call forwarding, caller ID, conferencing, etc. • Progress • The last decade has seen a lot of evolution of regulations backed by the FBI, FCC, DOJ, DEA • Broadened to cover many new technology solutions such as push-to-talk, SMS messaging, chat sessions, etc. • for a list of standards •

  4. Lawful Interception • PSTN world wiretapping • Dedicated connection – point-to-point • Dedicated resources for the call duration • Voice routed using mechanical switches or line connectivity tables • Wiretapping in local loop or at the local exchange • Packet world wiretapping • Shared transmission medium: Packets contain addresses not tied to a location • Routing is dynamic and can take multiple paths • Many applications traverse the same transmission path • Decentralized VOP (SBCs, gateways, proxies, routers, switches, etc.) makes it difficult for wiretapping • Requires cooperation from infrastructure device vendors

  5. Lawful Interception – Terminology • LAES: Lawfully authorized electronic surveillance • LEA: Law enforcement agency • A government entity authorized to conduct LAES(FBI, police, DEA, etc.) • CC: Call content (payload of multi-media packets) • CCC: Call content channel • CII: Call-identifying information or call data (CD) • Signaling or dialing information that identifies origin, direction, destination or termination generated or received by a subscriber • CDC: Call data channel

  6. Lawful Interception – Terminology • IAP: Intercept access point • A point within a telecommunications system or VOP network where some of the communications or CII of an intercept subject’s equipment, facilities or services are accessed • Intercept subject: Subscriber whose communications, CII or both have been authorized by a court to be intercepted, monitored and delivered to an LEA • Associate: The called party in the conversation • TSP: Telecommunications service provider

  7. LI – Surveillance Model TSP Access Function VoP Signaling Service Provider Administration Delivery Function Lawful Authorization CII CC LEA Collection Function Law Enforcement Administration

  8. LI – Surveillance Model • Access function (AF) • One or more IAPs • Delivery function (DF) • CCCs and CDCs • Collection function (CF) • Collecting and analyzing intercepted communications • Service provider administration function (SPAF) • Controlling the TSP access and delivery functions • Law enforcement administration function (LEAF) • Controlling the LEA collection function • Mediation function (MF) • Presentation of data (CC or CII) to DF (VoIP→TDM or VoIP → VoIP)

  9. Network’s Domain Subject’s Domain LEA’s Domain IAP VoP/Network Signaling CII AF LEA-CF CII DF VoP Signaling CII MF Terminal IAP VoP, TDM CC MF VoP VoP CC AF LEA-CF CC DF VoP LI – Functional Architecture

  10. LI – Functional Architecture OSI Stack OSI Stack DF App CC/CII CF App A-PDU A-PDU 7 7 CC/CII 1 1 Delivery Method Delivery Method Delivery Function Collection Function CCC and CDC should be separate channels CCC and CDC can share same medium

  11. LI – Intercept Access Points • Physical locations on the network from where the CC or CII is delivered to delivery function • Can be in multiple locations • CII and CC IAPs can be co-located • Call identifying information IAP • CII directly associated with the call • Management of an existing call between intercept subject and associate(s) (establishing, managing and releasing) • CII indirectly associated with the call • ServingSystem message: Register or deregister addressing info • Call content IAP

  12. - Access Router - Border Router LI – Intercept Access Points Bob’s VOIP SP Alice’s VOIP SP Transport ISP B Transport ISP A Call Setup • VoIP SPs first enable setup • VoIP calls directly take place • Preferred wiretaps – R1 and R2 • R1/R2 should be configured to tap • Single SP makes life easier VOIP Conversation Transport ISP C Transport ISP D R2 R1 VOIP Phone Bob VOIP Phone Alice Courtesy: Ref[1]

  13. LI – Intercept Access Points • Media gateways • Session border controllers • Access routers • Signaling proxies • CII and CC are typically delivered over secure channels to LEA

  14. TAP TRAFFIC COMING TO PKT LI - TDM NP Packetizer TDM_PKT _CHANNEL Legacy Phone DSP IP Phone NP NP Packetizer Enc/Dec EC B A UnPacketizer Enc/Dec LI - PKT NP Packetizer TAP TRAFFIC COMING FROM PKT LI on TDM_PKT_CHANNEL

  15. NP Packetizer Encoder A IP Phone Decoder UnPacketizer DSP NP Packetizer Encoder B IP Phone Decoder UnPacketizer DSP LI-A NP Packetizer Encoder DSP LI-B NP Packetizer Encoder DSP LI on PKT_PKT_CHNL

  16. LI Model with Conferencing LI – TDM_PKT_CONF_CHNL Courtesy: [4]

  17. LI – Surveillance Events • Information events • Call-control related events • Answer: Call accepted • Origination: Subject initiated a VoP session • Release: Session released along with resources • Termination attempt: Session termination requested • Signaling events • Dialed digit extraction: Digits dialed after a call is connected • Direct signal reporting: Signaling from and to intercept subject • Network signal: Tone or message indicating CII(busy, ringing, etc.) • Subject signal: Call waiting, forwarding, etc.

  18. LI – Surveillance Events • Information events • Feature use events • Change • Connection • Connection break • Redirection • Registration events • Address registration • Content events • CCChange: Media characteristics established or modified • CCClose: CC delivery is disabled • CCOpen: CC delivery is enabled • CCUnavailable: Network loses access for the call under interception

  19. LI Challenges • Security vs. CALEA requirements • Security ensures privacy, packet integrity, authenticityand non-repudiation • CALEA requires intercepted packets are not secured • SRTP and secured SIP with end-to-end security poses challenge • Peer-to-peer VoIP communication with security enabled prevents interception • Secured traffic needs to be decrypted and re-encryptedfor interception • Security Association termination and re-initiation • Key distribution or sharing with LEA

  20. LI Challenges • Channel capacity affected if channel duplication is required • Design should consider requirements for extra performance • Should support all call models like Forking, Handoff, etc. • Should support all codecs in use • Requires additional interface support

  21. References [1] Security Implications of Applying the Communications Assistance to Law Enforcement Act to Voice over IP, Steve Bellovin, et al, June 13, 2006 [2] Electronics Surveillance Needs for Carrier-Grade Voice Over Packet (CGVoP) Service, FBI Document for CALEA [3] Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance (LAES) for voice over Packet Technologies in Wireline Telecommunications Networks ANSI T1.678.xxxx [4] 05/2000, TIA/EIA/J-STD-025 Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance, revision A: updated [5] 09/200, TIA/EIA/J-STD-025 Lawfully Authorized Electronic Surveillance, updated [6] [7]