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Specialized Business Information Systems

Specialized Business Information Systems

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Specialized Business Information Systems

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  1. Specialized Business Information Systems Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  2. Principles and Learning Objectives • Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems. • Define the term artificial intelligence and state the objective of developing artificial intelligence systems. • List the characteristics of intelligent behavior and compare the performance of natural and artificial intelligence systems for each of these characteristics. • Identify the major components of the artificial intelligence field and provide one example of each type of system. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  3. Principles and Learning Objectives • Expert systems can enable a novice to perform at the level of an expert but must be developed and maintained very carefully. • List the characteristics and basic components of expert systems. • Outline and briefly explain the steps for developing an expert system. • Identify the benefits associated with the use of expert systems. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  4. Principles and Learning Objectives • Virtual reality systems have the potential to reshape the interface between people and information technology by offering new ways to communicate information creatively. • Define the term virtual reality and provide three examples of virtual reality applications. • Special-purpose systems can help organizations and individuals achieve their goals. • Discuss examples of special-purpose systems for organizational and individual use. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  5. An Overview of Artificial Intelligence Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  6. The Nature of Intelligence • Learn from experience & apply the knowledge • Handle complex situations • Solve problems when important information is missing • Determine what is important Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  7. The Nature of Intelligence • React quickly and correctly to new situations • Understand visual images • Process and manipulate symbols • Be creative and imaginative • Use heuristics Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  8. A comparison of Natural and Artificial Intelligence Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  9. A Conceptual Model of Artificial Intelligence Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  10. Overview of Expert Systems Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  11. Characteristics of an Expert System • Can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions • Can display “intelligent” behavior • Can draw conclusions from complex relationships • Can provide portable knowledge • Can deal with uncertainty • Not widely used or tested Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  12. Characteristics of an Expert System • Limited to relatively narrow problems • Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge • Possibility of error • Cannot refine its own knowledge • May have high development costs • Raise legal and ethical concerns Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  13. When to Use Expert Systems • High payoff • Preserve scarce expertise • Distribute expertise • Provide more consistency than humans • Faster solutions than humans • Training expertise Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  14. Components of an Expert System Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  15. The Relationships Among Data, Information, and Knowledge Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  16. Rules for a Credit Application Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  17. The Knowledge Acquisition Facility Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  18. Knowledge Base • Assembling human experts • The use of fuzzy logic • The use of rules • The use of cases Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  19. Inference Engine • Backward chaining • Forward chaining • Comparison of backward and forward chaining Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  20. Expert Systems Development Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  21. Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  22. Domain Expert • Recognize the real problem • Develop a general framework for problem solving • Formulate theories about the situation • Develop and use general rules to solve a problem • Know when to break the rules or general principles • Solve problems quickly and efficiently Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  23. Expert Systems Development Alternatives Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  24. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence • Credit granting and loan analysis • Stock Picking • Catching cheats and terrorists • Budgeting Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  25. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence • Information management and retrieval • Games • Virus detection • Hospitals and medical facilities Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  26. Virtual Reality Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  27. Virtual Reality Enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment • Immersive virtual reality - user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer • Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  28. Interface Devices • Head mounted display (HMD) • Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM) • CAVE • Haptic interface Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  29. The BOOM, a Head-Coupled Display Device Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  30. Viewing the Detroit Midfield Terminal in an Immersive CAVE System Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  31. Useful Applications • Medicine – used to link stroke patients to physical therapists • Education and training – used by military for aircraft maintenance • Entertainment • Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones • Real Estate Marketing and Tourism • Used to increase real estate sales • Virtual reality tour of the White House Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  32. Other Specialized Systems • Segway Personal Transporter • Adaptive brain interface technology • Personal awareness assistant (PAA) Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  33. Segway Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  34. Summary • Artificial intelligence - used to describe computers with ability to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain • Intelligent behavior - includes the ability to learn from experience • Expert systems - can explain their reasoning (or suggested decisions) and display intelligent behavior • Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment • Special-purpose systems - assist organizations and individuals in new and exciting ways Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition