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Specialized Business Information Systems

Specialized Business Information Systems

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Specialized Business Information Systems

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  1. Specialized Business Information Systems Chapter 7 Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  2. The Nature of Intelligence • Learn from experience & apply the knowledge • Deep Blue improves its performance by playing with humans • Handle complex situations • Traffic problem in Istanbul • Solve problems when important information is missing • Based on available information • Determine what is important • Choose which facts to use to compute the solution Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  3. The Nature of Intelligence • React quickly and correctly to new situations • Requires understanding the new situation • Understand visual images • Requires perception • Process and manipulate symbols • Computers are better at dealing with numbers • Be creative and imaginative • Use heuristics • Rules of thumb from experience Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  4. A comparison of Natural and Artificial Intelligence Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  5. A Conceptual Model of Artificial Intelligence Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  6. What is an Expert System? • Hardware and software that contain knowledge and manipulate knowledge by inferences • Mycin (Shortliffe 1976): Expert system for medicine • Program for advising physicians on treating bacterial infections • Question and answer dialogues with user • Accounts for uncertainties • Explains its reasoning Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  7. Characteristics of an Expert System • Can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions • Why recommend a certain medicine? • Can display “intelligent” behavior • Can draw conclusions from complex relationships • A patient is diagnosed with two diseases, • The cures for the diseases may have conflicts • Can provide portable knowledge • Capture knowledge in one’s brain • Can deal with uncertainty • A patient is diagnose without running all the tests Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  8. Characteristics of an Expert System • Not widely used or tested • Limited to relatively narrow problems • Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge • Expert systems should talk to each other • Cannot refine its own knowledge • Should be able to keep a consistent knowledgebase • Should have a way to gain new knowledge • May have high development costs • Raise legal and ethical concerns Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  9. When to Use Expert Systems • High payoff • Preserve scarce expertise • Provide more consistency than humans • Faster solutions than humans • Training expertise Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  10. Components of an Expert System Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  11. The Relationships Among Data, Information, and Knowledge Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  12. Rules for a Credit Application Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  13. The Knowledge Acquisition Facility Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  14. Knowledge Base • Assembling human experts • Combine knowledge from several experts • Disagree on many items • The use of fuzzy logic • For relations that are not precise • Is a 50-year old man old? • Help computers deal with imprecise knowledge • Ex: Washing machines; Auto-focus cameras Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  15. Knowledge Base • The use of rules • Rule: Conditional statement (if … then) • If the condition matches, the action fires • More rules generally mean more precision • The use of cases • Template of problems or situations • To find the solution of a new case, find similar old cases and apply result Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  16. Inference Engine (1) • Use information and relations to derive new facts to solve problems or predict possible outcomes • Main reasoning component • Find the right facts, apply the right relations, etc. • Ex: Facts: male(Ali), female(Oya) • Relations: father(X, Y) => male(X) • The engine can conclude that Oya cannot be a father. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  17. Inference Engine (2) • Backward chaining • You start with conclusions • You want to find out if you can get to the conclusion from your facts • Forward chaining • You start with facts and try to reach conclusions • More expensive since it can generate many conclusions Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  18. Other Components • Explanation Facility • Enables the expert system to explain its reasoning • Helps the user to judge the expert system • Knowledge Acquisition Facility • Get and update knowledge • Provide a way to capture and store knowledge • Can be semi-automated • User Interface • Help users interact with the system • Improve usability Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  19. Expert Systems Development Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  20. Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  21. Domain Expert • Recognize the real problem • Develop a general framework for problem solving • Formulate theories about the situation • Develop and use general rules to solve a problem • Know when to break the rules or general principles • Solve problems quickly and efficiently Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  22. Other participants • Knowledge Engineer • Works in design and implementation of the expert system • Has considerable information about expert systems • Knowledge User • End user who will benefit from the system • No need to know anything about expert systems • Can help in testing Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  23. Expert Systems Development Alternatives Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  24. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence • Credit granting and loan analysis • Stock Picking • Catching cheats and terrorists • NORA (Non-obvious Relationship Awareness) • Budgeting Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  25. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence • Games: Proverb solves crossword puzzles • Writing: Evaluate and rate writings • Information management and retrieval • Virus detection • Learns the actions of a virus • Hospitals and medical facilities Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  26. Virtual Reality Enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment • Immersive virtual reality - user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer • Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  27. Interface Devices • Head mounted display (HMD) • Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM) • CAVE Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  28. The BOOM, a Head-Coupled Display Device Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  29. Viewing the Detroit Midfield Terminal in an Immersive CAVE System Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  30. Useful Applications • Medicine – used to link stroke patients to physical therapists • Education and training – used by military for aircraft maintenance • Entertainment • Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones • Real Estate Marketing and Tourism • Used to increase real estate sales • Virtual reality tour of the White House Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  31. Segway Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  32. Robotics • Mechanical or computer devices that can move autonomously • Manufacturers use robots to assemble or paint products • Asimo in Istanbul: Shake hands, dance • Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs): Identify and destroy targets without human intervention Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  33. Vision Systems • Capture, store, manipulate visual images • Fingerprint analysis: Store a database of fingerprints and information about the owners. • Match a fingerprint with an existing entry in the database • Mostly recognize black and white Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  34. Natural Language Processing • Understand and react to statements in natural language • Three levels of understanding • Commands • Discrete • Continuous • Talk to a computer; computer converts languages to commands understandable by computers Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  35. Learning Systems • Change its behavior over time • Computer takes an action • User gives feedback • Based on the feedback, computer modifies its action • First train the system; then try on test data • Amazon.com learns user models as users browse and buy goods Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  36. Summary • Artificial intelligence - used to describe computers with ability to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain • Intelligent behavior - includes the ability to learn from experience • Expert systems - can explain their reasoning (or suggested decisions) and display intelligent behavior • Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment • Special-purpose systems - assist organizations and individuals in new and exciting ways Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  37. Principles and Learning Objectives • Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems. • Define the term artificial intelligence and state the objective of developing artificial intelligence systems. • List the characteristics of intelligent behavior and compare the performance of natural and artificial intelligence systems for each of these characteristics. • Identify the major components of the artificial intelligence field and provide one example of each type of system. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  38. Principles and Learning Objectives • Expert systems can enable a novice to perform at the level of an expert but must be developed and maintained very carefully. • List the characteristics and basic components of expert systems. • Outline and briefly explain the steps for developing an expert system. • Identify the benefits associated with the use of expert systems. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition

  39. Principles and Learning Objectives • Virtual reality systems have the potential to reshape the interface between people and information technology by offering new ways to communicate information creatively. • Define the term virtual reality and provide three examples of virtual reality applications. • Special-purpose systems can help organizations and individuals achieve their goals. • Discuss examples of special-purpose systems for organizational and individual use. Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition