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Specialized Business Information Systems

Specialized Business Information Systems

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Specialized Business Information Systems

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  1. Specialized Business Information Systems Chapter 11 MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  2. Principles and Learning Objectives • Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems. • Define the term artificial intelligence and state the objective of developing artificial intelligence systems. • List the characteristics of intelligent behavior and compare the performance of natural and artificial intelligence systems for each of these characteristics. • Identify the major components of the artificial intelligence field and provide one example of each type of system. MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  3. Principles and Learning Objectives • Expert systems can enable a novice to perform at the level of an expert but must be developed and maintained very carefully. • List the characteristics and basic components of expert systems. • Identify at least three factors to consider in evaluating the development of an expert system. • Outline and briefly explain the steps for developing an expert system. • Identify the benefits associated with the use of expert systems. MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  4. Principles and Learning Objectives • Virtual reality systems have the potential to reshape the interface between people and information technology by offering new ways to communicate information creatively. • Define the term virtual reality and provide three examples of virtual reality applications. • Special-purpose systems can help organizations and individuals achieve their goals. • Discuss examples of special-purpose systems for organizational and individual use. MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  5. An Overview of Artificial Intelligence MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  6. The Nature of Intelligence • Learn from experience & apply the knowledge • Handle complex situations • Solve problems when important information is missing • Determine what is important MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  7. The Nature of Intelligence • React quickly & correctly to new situations • Understand visual images • Process & manipulate symbols • Be creative & imaginative • Use heuristics MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  8. The Difference Between Natural and Artificial Intelligence MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  9. The Major Branches of ArtificialIntelligence MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  10. An Overview of Expert Systems MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  11. Characteristics of an Expert System • Can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions • Can display “intelligent” behavior • Can draw conclusions from complex relationships • Can provide portable knowledge • Can deal with uncertainty • Not widely used or tested MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  12. Characteristics of an Expert System • Limited to relatively narrow problems • Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge • Possibility of error • Cannot refine its own knowledge • May have high development costs • Raise legal and ethical concerns MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  13. Capabilities of an Expert Systems • Strategic goal setting • Planning • Design • Decision-making • Quality control and monitoring • Diagnosis MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  14. Capabilities of Expert Systems MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  15. When to Use Expert Systems • High payoff • Preserve scarce expertise • Distribute expertise • Provide more consistency than humans • Faster solutions than humans • Training expertise MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  16. Components of an Expert System MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  17. Knowledge Base • Assembling human experts • The use of fuzzy logic • The use of rules • The use of cases MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  18. Knowledge Base MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  19. Inference Engine • Backward chaining • Forward chaining • Comparison of backward and forward chaining MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  20. The Use of Rules MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  21. The Knowledge Acquisition Facility MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  22. Components of an Expert System • The explanation facility • The knowledge acquisition facility • The user interface MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  23. Expert Systems Development MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  24. Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems • Domain expert • Knowledge engineer • Knowledge user MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  25. Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  26. Domain Experts • Recognize the real problem • Develop a general framework for problem solving • Formulate theories about the situation • Develop and use general rules to solve a problem • Know when to break the rules or general principles • Solve problems quickly and efficiently MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  27. Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  28. Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  29. Expert Systems Development Alternatives MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  30. Applications of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence • Credit granting and loan analysis • Stock picking • Catching cheats and terrorists • Budgeting MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  31. Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence • Information management and retrieval • Games • Virus detection • Hospitals and medical facilities MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  32. Virtual Reality MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  33. Virtual Reality • Enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment • Immersive virtual reality - user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer • Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  34. Segway MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  35. Interface Devices • Head-mounted display (HMD) • Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM) • CAVE • Haptic interface MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  36. Forms of Virtual Reality • Mouse-controlled navigation • Stereo projection systems • Stereo viewing from the monitor via stereo glasses MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  37. Useful Applications • Medicine – used to link stroke patients to physical therapists • Education and training – used by military for aircraft maintenance • Entertainment • Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  38. Useful Applications • Real Estate Marketing and Tourism • Used to increase real estate sales • Virtual reality tour of the White House MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  39. Other Specialized Systems • Segway Personal Transporter • Adaptive brain interface technology • Personal awareness assistant (PAA) MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan

  40. Summary • Artificial intelligence - used to describe computers with ability to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain • Intelligent behavior - includes the ability to learn from experience • Expert systems - can explain their reasoning (or suggested decisions) and display intelligent behavior • Virtual reality systems - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment • Special-purpose systems - assist organizations and individuals in new and exciting ways. For example, Segway MSIS 110: Introduction to Computers; Instructor: S. Mathiyalakan