Injuries to the Head and Neck PE 236 Juan Cuevas, ATC
Anatomy Review Skull • The skull has 8 cranial bones & 14 facial bones. • Cranial bones have articulations called suture joints.
Anatomy Review (continued) • Soft tissue structures protect the cranium.
Anatomy Review (continued) The Meninges • Located underneath cranial bones, consisting the dura, arachnoid, and pia mater.
Anatomy Review (continued) Central Nervous System (CNS) • Brain and spinal cord comprise the CNS. • CNS is protected by meninges, cranium, and vertebrae. • CNS consists of gray and white matter and weighs 3.0 to 3.5 lbs (adult). • Brain has three basic components, the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. • Neural impulses travel via 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.
Anatomy Review (continued) The Neck (cervical spine) • The 7 cervical vertebrae provide support for the head and protection for the spinal cord.
Anatomy Review (continued) • The first cervical vertebra (C-1) is called atlas. • Atlas articulates with the occipital bone • The second cervical vertebra (C-2) is called axis.
Head Injuries in Sports Even minor head trauma can result in serious injury. • Brain tissue is unable to repair itself; any tissue loss results in some level of permanent disability. • Severe injuries can result in death. • Coaches can learn to recognize head injuries and render first aid when necessary.
Mechanisms of Head Injury Direct injury to the head involves a blow to the head that causes injury at impact site. • Contrecoup injury • Coup injury Indirect injury to the head results from damaging forces traveling to the head from other parts of the body. Treat every head injury as if there is a neck injury and vice versa.
Head Injuries in Sports Cranial injury: • Involves the bones of the skull. • May be associated soft tissue injury. Depressed skull fracture: • Involves bone fragments being pushed into the cranial region.
Head Injuries in Sports (continued) Concussion is “a clinical syndrome characterized by immediate and transient impairment of neurologic function secondary to mechanical forces.”
Concussion signs and symptoms • Headache • Nausea • Balance problems • Double or fuzzy vision • Sensitivity to light or noise • Sluggishness • Felling “foggy” • Concentration and memory problems • Symptoms may worsen with exertion • Athlete should not return to play until symptom-free!
Head Injuries in Sports (continued) • RetrogradeAmnesia: forgets events prior to hit • AnterogradeAmnesia: forgets events after hit.
Second Impact Syndrome (SIS) can be a serious problem! Results when an athlete with a head injury receives another head injury before the symptoms of the first injury have resolved. Involves rapid and catastrophic brain swelling. SIS can result in death. Any athlete sustaining a head injury, no matter how minor, should be monitored by a physician before being cleared to return to participation. Head Injuries in Sports (continued)
Special Tests • Neurologic exam • Assess cerebral testing, cranial nerve testing, cerebellar testing, sensory and reflex testing • Eye function • Pupils equal round and reactive to light (PEARL) • Dilated or irregular pupils • Ability of pupils to accommodate to light variance • Eye tracking - smooth or unstable (nystagmus, which may indicate cerebral involvement) • Blurred vision
Balance Tests • Romberg Test • Assess static balance - determine individual’s ability to stand and remain motionless • Tandem stance is ideal • Coordination tests • Finger to nose, heel-to-toe walking • Inability to perform tests may indicate injury to the cerebellum
Cognitive Tests • Used to establish impact of head trauma on cognitive function and to obtain objective measures to assess patient status and improvement • On or off-field assessment • Months in reverse order, counting backwards • Tests of recent memory (score of contest, breakfast game, 3 word recall) • http://sports.espn.go.com/broadband/video/videopage?videoId=3094263
Cervical Spine Injuries Neck Injuries • Majority occur in football, rugby, ice hockey, soccer, diving, and gymnastics. Cervical injuries, however, can occur in almost any sport. • Catastrophic injuries are rare--less than 2 in 100,000 of all neck injuries reported in the United States.
Cervical Spine Conditions • Mechanisms of Injury
Cervical Spine Injuries (continued) • Mechanisms include hyperflexion, hyperextension, rotation, lateral flexion, and axial loading. • Neck strains rarely involve neurologic damage. • Serious injuries occur when intact vertebra or fragments of fractured vertebra are displaced or an intervertebral disk ruptures and places pressure on spinal cord or nerve roots.
Mechanism of Cervical Spine Injuries • Axial load produces most cervical spine injuries. • 1976 NCAA enacted the rule barring “spearing.” • Any forced movement of cervical spine can result in injury. • Brachial plexus injuries can produce significant, but transient symptoms. Coaching personnel must take great care when conducting an examination of an athlete suspected of having a neck injury.