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Plant Propagation PowerPoint Presentation
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Plant Propagation

Plant Propagation

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Plant Propagation

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  1. Plant Propagation • The creation of new life! • Propagation means to multiply or make new • Propagation methods require: • Knowledge • Skill • Practice • Propagation is an ART!!

  2. Propagation Methods • Sexual propagation: Reproduction involving a female (egg) and male (pollen) sex cells to produce a seed • Some plants can only be reproduced by seeds • Cross-pollination is when one flower is pollinated by another flower with different characteristics • Self-pollination is when pollen of the same plant is used

  3. Propagation Methods • Asexual propagation: Reproduction using cuttings from leaves, stems, or roots to make new plants • Based on the principle of totipotency • Allows the production of a CONSISTENT crop • Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to divide and recreate another type of cell • Creates a monoculture • Only one plant variety is present in a particular environment

  4. Seed germination • As a seed germinates, or begins to grow, it will start to absorb water • After the seed coat cracks, two things happen: • The radicle, the plant’s first root emerges into the soil to serve as an anchor • The plumule, also known as the shoot or seed bud, emerges from the soil • Cotyledons, or seed leaves, emerge • Dicotyledons: plants with two cotyledons – Example: Beans • Monocotyledons: plants with one codyledon – Example: Corn

  5. Germination conditions • The seedbed is the soil or medium in which seeds are sown • The seed has requirements for: • Temperature • Wind tolerance • Insects and pests • Moisture • Exposure to light • Air circulation • Planting depth • Placing between seeds

  6. dormancy Two methods of breaking seed dormancy: • Scarification: The process of slightly damaging or breaking the tough seed coat which allows water penetration into the seed • Example: Rubbing seed against sand paper, a file, or a rough surface • Stratification: A cold treatment process given to some seeds to complete ripening and overcome dormancy • Seeds are place in a plastic bag inside a refrigerator around 36-38° F

  7. Methods of Seeding • When propagating by seed, you must think of the appropriate method: • Indirect seeding: Seeds are first planted in pots or containers • Direct seeding: Seeds are planted directly into the garden • When seeds planted indirectly, they must be transplanted • Transplanting: To move a plant from one location and plant it in another

  8. Methods of direct seeding • Furrow method: narrow grooves are made into the soil • Broadcasting: sprinkling the seeds across a given area • Individual method: placing the seeds in the soil or media by hand • Can be done by hand or automated equipment • Large commercial operations • Specialized growing

  9. After sowing seeds • Make sure to place an identification marker!! • Name of seed and date sown • Lightly mist the media until damp • In order to retain moisture, plastic wrap can be applied over the top of the flat • Make sure to harden-off plants grown indoors before moving them outside • Hardening-off: process where young plants receive less care and a greater range in temperatures in order to acclimate them to living outside

  10. Types of available seeds • Seed selection is VERY important • Seeds are labeled with: • Name of the plant • Expiration date • Germination percentage • Plant seed percentage • Inert material percentage • The germination rate is the amount of seeds that are expected to germinate • Inert material may be weed seeds or plant material

  11. Root promotion in asexual propagation • Asexual propagation is like cloning plants • Having an appropriate rooting medium is important • A sterile mix, free of diseases or pests • Horitcultural sand • Moss – Peat and sphagnum • Vermiculite • Perlite • Often cuttings are grown in a mixture of these

  12. Asexual propagation • Temperature is important • Some plants prefer bottom heat which is artificial heat that keeps the soil or media warm • Moisture and light exposure are also significant • Cuttings can be taken from different plant growth • Softwood: New plant growth • Hardwood: Older growth on a woody plant

  13. Stock plant • To give cuttings the best start, the stock plant, or main plantthe cuttings are taken from should be: • Healthy specimen • Free of insects and disease • Take cuttings from the top of the plant which is often younger, cleaner, and healthier • Auxin is sometimes required in asexual propagation for root development

  14. Methods of asexual propagation • Cutting: a process where part of the stock is cut off in order to reproduce a new plant • Stem cutting: Requires at least 3 nodes per cutting • Tip cutting: Cutting from the tip of the stem • Leaf cutting: a leaf, a leaf and petiole, or a portion of a leaf is taken from the stock plant • Polarity: Tendency of a cutting to develop roots from the bottom and sprouts from the top • Leaf-bud cutting: Cutting of a bud and node • Root cutting: Cuttings from roots

  15. layering

  16. Methods of asexual propagation • Division: Process of dividing plant that spread underground • Example: Iris, daylily, ferns • Separation: Process of propagating plants that spread by aboveground stems or bulblets • Example: Spider plant • Tissue Culture: Cloning plants from genetic material

  17. grafting • Grafting: Attaching twigs, buds, or roots onto other stems or roots The two plants must be closely related for the plants to fuse • Scion: Portion of the plant attached during grafting • Rootstock: The lower portion of the plant that receives the graft or bud • Interstock: A twig that is grafted between the scion and rootstock

  18. Budding methods • Budding: A form of grafting where a bud is attached to stock plant by various means to produce a more desirable plant • A budstick twig is used as a source of buds • Patch method • Chip bud • T-bud

  19. Other types of grafting • Whip and tongue • Bark graft • Slipping bark: When the cambium is actively growing and can be pulled back easily • Approach • Four-flap grafting