Plant Propagation Remember when you did this?
History of Propagation • Ancient peoples • Middle ages • Herbals • Victorians
Sexual Propagation Flower parts
Seeds are Formed by… Pollination:The transfer of pollen from the anthers to the female stigma by a pollinating agent such as wind, insects, birds, bats, or in a few cases the opening of the flower itself. Fertilization: The fusion of two gametes (sperm and ovum) to produce a zygote that develops into a new individual with a genetic heritage derived from both parents.
Seeds- A packaged plant surrounded by endosperm (food) and protective seed coat Germination of a Bean Seed Check for seed viability!
Spores- A reproductive unit found on ferns, mosses, and mushrooms Sporangia in sori Underside of pinnae
Asexual or Vegetative Propagation • Leaf Cuttings and Leaf-bud Cuttings • Stem Cuttings • Root Cuttings • Division • Layering • Tip Layering • Air Layering • Grafting • Bulbs, Corms, Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons
Leaf Cuttings- Use only the leaf Vein cutting from leaf African violet RememberPolarity or which way is up! Leaf Section Cutting
Stem Cuttings- Use the stem and leaves or just the stem. Cuttings should be 6-10” long & between nodes Dibble, then placecutting in soil
Root, Cane Cuttings- Uses roots or shoots Blackberry root Cane cutting Stokesia Root
Bulbs- Specialized roots and stems • Bulbs- Underground organ with scales and basal plate • 1. Tunicate- onion, garlic, daffodil, tulip • 2. Non-Tunicate- Lily
Corms- Specialized roots and stems • Corms-Swollen base of stem axis- Solid- • Gladiolus, • Crocus Gladioluscorm with bulblets
Rhizomes, Tubers, Stolons Dahlia tuber Iris rhizome Stolon Potato Tuber
Division- To separate a clump into individual plants-Used for perennials and some houseplants Separate roots to find individual plants and plant Clean off root ball Dig up Mother Plant Photos from Garden Gate Magazine
Layering- Growing new plants while attached to the mother plant. They are later separated. Air layering Ground layering
Grafting and Budding- Used to attach one plant to the other for strength or variety Bud-grafting Whip Grafting
How can I propagate my bulbs? • Tunicate Bulbs • Cuttage (8 Sections) • Scooping • Scoring • Coring • Sectioning (5-10) • Non-tunicate Bulbs Bulb Scales
When to propagate • Late spring and early summer= optimal growing time • Depends ontype of cutting • Need to check resources for specific plants. Each one may have an optimal time • Some seeds need to go through stratificationorperiod of cold to break dormancy • Some seeds need to be scarifiedor scratched
Propagation Environment • Aerial Environment • Humidity • Light • Temperature • Air quality • Growing Medium • Moisture level • Temperature • Aeration • pH • Nutrient level
Equipment and Hygiene- Keep everything clean so disease is not spread Pruning knife Hand cutters Sterilize all toolswith alcohol afteruse! Watering Can Liners and Light
Soil • Purpose of soil • Larger particles (sand) holds plant in place • Smaller particles hold water and nutrients • Ingredients in soil • Vermiculite= Holds moisture • Perlite= Increases aeration • Peat=Moisten –Helps stop decomposition • Sand=Drainage • Sphagnum Moss= Holds water well, light in weight • Recipes and proportions vary depending on plant!
When can I plant it? • Gently tug on the cutting to see if your plant has developed a good root system • Repot in larger pot if necessary
What does propagate mean? • Latin propagatus, past participle of propagareto set slips, propagate, from propagesslip, offspring, • pro-before + pangereto fasten Date: circa 1570
How Do Stem Cuttings Work? • How roots develop • Response to wounding-dedifferentiation • Cells begin to divide • Callus begins to form • Certain cells begin to divide and initiate root development
How do leaf cuttings grow? • Origins of roots and shoots varies • Embryonic cells are involved in meristematic activity • Compounds trigger growth of roots and shoots Root apical meristematic tissue of onion Shoot apical meristematic tissue