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Plant Propagation PowerPoint Presentation
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Plant Propagation

Plant Propagation

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Plant Propagation

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  1. Plant Propagation

  2. Plant Propagation • The process of increasing the numbers of a species, maintaining a species, or preserving the vigor of a plant.

  3. Successful Plant Propagation • Knowledge of technical skills • The art of plant propagation • Knowledge of plant biology • Morphology, anatomy, physiology, etc. • Knowledge of plants • Selected method related to conditions and techniques to propagate an individual plant

  4. Plant Propagation • Sexual Propagation • Recombination of genetic materials to form uniquely genetic individual • Asexual Propagation • Use of vegetative organs to create plantlets genetically identical to parent plant

  5. Sexual Propagation

  6. Propagation by Seed • Biology • Pollination • Anatomy • Germination • Applied • Purchasing • Starting • Transplanting • Collecting • Storing

  7. Pollination • Pollination: transfer of pollen from anther (male part) to stigma (female part) in a flower. • Exchange of genetic material

  8. Monocots vs. Dicots

  9. Pollination • Self pollination: • Transfer on same flower • From different flowers on the same plant o • From flowers on different plants of the same cultivar • Examples: Beans, peas, lettuce, eggplant, peppers, and tomatoes

  10. Pollination • Cross pollination: • Transfer of pollen on plants of different cultivars of the same species • Examples: Onions, cucumbers, corn, pumpkins, squash, broccoli, beets, carrots, cabbage, cauliflower, melons, radishes, spinach, Swiss chard and turnips

  11. Pollination • Fertilization • the union of a male reproductive cell and a female reproductive cell that is capable of developing into an new individual

  12. Anatomy • Embryo: miniature plant in arrested development • Endosperm (Cotyledons): built-in food storage • Seed Coat: hard out covering for protection, prevents water from entering and initiating germination before proper time.

  13. Anatomy

  14. Seed Coat Embryo Endosperm

  15. Germination • The process of seed growth and development

  16. Germination • Dormancy • Viable seed that will not germinate when in proper environment • Due to internal or external cause

  17. Germination • Quiescent • Ripened seed, ready to germinate, waiting for the proper environmental conditions for germinations • Allows seed to survive over periods of time

  18. Germination • Scarification • Physically altering the seed coat to allow moisture penetration • Natural scarification processes: passing seed through GI tract of animals, weathering of coat • Artificial scarification processes: hot water bath, sandpaper, etc. • Breaks seed coat allowing moisture to enter!

  19. Germination • Stratification • Exposing a seed to moisture and specific temperatures (cold) in order to encourage germination • Degrades chemical inhibitors causing dormancy

  20. Germination • Factors affecting germination • Water (moisture) • Light (or dark) • Oxygen • Heat

  21. Germination • Water (moisture) • Penetrates seed coat---Imbibition • Endosperm swells- seed coat splits • Dissolves nutrients to initiate germination

  22. Germination • Light (or dark) • Can stimulate or inhibit germination • Check seed package for planting instructions

  23. Germination • Oxygen • Required for respiration • Facilitated with light, well aerated soil mix

  24. Germination • Heat • Optimum range for germination • Many seeds have wide range • Check catalog or seed package for instructions • Drives metabolic process

  25. Propagation by Seed • Biology • Pollination • Anatomy • Germination • Applied • Purchasing • Starting • Transplanting • Collecting • Storing

  26. Purchasing Seed • Choose superior cultivars • High quality seed • Disease resistant cultivars when available • Garden centers • Mail order • Obtain by mid-February

  27. Purchasing Seed • Germination rates • Expected percentage of seed to germinate • Generally, 65-80% will germinate • 60-75% will grow into useful seedlings • May affect density of planting

  28. Starting • Indoors • Small seeds • Long season plants • Supplies needed • Grow lights • Clean containers (with drainage) • Sterile seed starting medium • Location with proper ventilation and temperature

  29. Starting • Growing media • Loose, uniform, fine texture • Mixes labeled for seed starting • Pasteurized (sterile) • May be low in fertility

  30. Starting • Containers • Any container will do • Disinfested • Good drainage • Adequate root space

  31. Starting • Containers • Compressed peat pellets • Peat pots • Paper pots • Plastic cell packs • Flats

  32. Starting • Sowing • Account for seed germination in timing factor and growing time • 2 weeks to germinate, 6 weeks to transplant date - 8 weeks for full development time. • Sow in mid-March or April depending on plant species and growing conditions

  33. Starting • Fill container to within ¼ inch of the top of the rim with moistened seed-starting medium

  34. Starting • Large seeds directly in pots or cell packs • Squash, cucumber, watermelon – 2 per pot • Use pencil or dibble to make hole for seeds • Cover with media related to seed size

  35. Starting • Small seeds scatter on surface of large cell packs or other containers for later transplant • Sprinkle more potting media over seeds or sphagnum moss (sphagnum moss helps prevent damping off) • Mix small seeds with sugar or extremely fine sand to help with equal distribution

  36. Starting • Watering • Water from below in tray before seeds germinate and when seedlings are very small • Allow drying between waterings • Helps prevent damping-off • Standing water in flats leads to disease problems • Don’t allow seedlings to wilt • Cell damage can occur that is permanent

  37. Starting • Moisture • Plastic covers are useful to trap moisture • Retains moisture • Remove to promote hardening of tissues

  38. Starting • Supplemental lighting • 3” – 4” from light source • Cool white and warm white fluorescent lights • Move lights as plants grow or move plants • 14 – 16 hours a day • Timers are inexpensive and very useful • High intensity and quality light less leggy plants

  39. Starting • Temperature • Nights 60 –68 F and 75 F • Good rule of thumb-day temperatures 10 degrees warm than night. • Cool season crops cooler day/night temps • 55 degrees night – 65 degrees day • Warm season crops higher day/night temps • 65 degrees night – 75 degrees day • Heating mats

  40. Starting • Fertilization • After germination • Go ½ rate, avoid burn • Two week intervals

  41. Starting • Transplanting • Move to larger container when first set of true leaves form • Lift seedlings from containers with small flat tool • Tease apart tangled plants/roots • Handle by true leaves